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Was German ever an official language in the USSR?

Was German ever an official language in the USSR?


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What can be said about historical perspective of this document, seemingly composed in German?


There was a Autonome Sozialistische Sowjetrepublik der Wolgadeutschen (Russian Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика Немцев Поволжья, English Volga German Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic)

From Wikipedia:

The republic was created following the Russian Revolution, by October 29 (some claim 19th) Decree of the Soviet government, Volga German Workers' Commune, giving Soviet Germans a special status among the non-Russians in the USSR. It was upgraded to the status of Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic on February 20, 1924 [… ] It became the first national autonomous unit in the Soviet Union after the Donetsk-Krivoy Rog Soviet Republic. It occupied the area of compact settlement of the large Volga German minority in Russia, which numbered almost 1.8 million by 1897. The republic was declared on January 6, 1924.

[… ] To the moment of declaration of the autonomy an amnesty was announced. However it eventually was applied to a small number of people. According to the politics of korenizatsiya, carried out in 1920s in the Soviet Union, usage of German language was promoted in official documents and Germans were encouraged to occupy management positions. According to the 1939 census, there were 605,500 Germans in the autonomy.

The German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941 marked the end of the Volga German ASSR. On August 28, 1941, Joseph Stalin issued a formal Decree of Banishment abolishing the ASSR and, fearing they could act as German spies, exiling all Volga Germans to the Kazakh SSR and Siberia. Many were interned in labor camps merely due to their heritage. The Republic was formally extinguished on September 7, 1941.

The German Wikipedia contains a list of all towns of the Volga Republic, there is also Dreispitz mentioned. Some informations of the town are also available at cu-portland.edu and lowervolga.org


There are still some areas with German background.

The Nemetsky National District (German Nationalkreis Halbstadt) was established on July 4, 1927 and abolished on November 5, 1938. It was re-established on July 1, 1991. Similar: Nationalkreis Asowo

But all this regions have the same problem: The German speaking people are mirgating to Germany or are assimilated by other local people.


This is a birth certificate of Georg Meier, born in Dreispitz, Saratov Oblast, Volga. And if you think not only his name, but also the village name sounds surprisingly German, that's because Dreispitz was founded by German protestants in 1767, and those living there were mostly German.

And Drespitz was not alone. There were apparently 104 villages founded there by Germans, and as such there was a large German speaking population in Volga. German may not have been official, but it seems that the Russian and the Soviet authorities in this area provided at least some dual-lingual papers.


Let me add to these explanations and address the question in jwenting's comment. The Soviet Union consisted of 15 republics, each of them having its own official language. According to the constitution, each republic was an "sovereign state", with its own parliament and constitution and a right to leave the union (which eventually happened). All documents were written in two languages: local and Russian (except in one republic, Russia). In addition to these republics there were smaller units: autonomous republics, autonomous regions, and autonomous districts. These had a smaller degree of autonomy than the principal republics. The German Autonomous Republic was abolished during World War Two. However, at least in the beginning, (before World War Two) all these smaller units used their own languages for all kinds of documentation.

So, to answer the original question: yes, German was an official language in a part of the USSR, from the creation of USSR until World War Two.


USSR established

In post-revolutionary Russia, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) is established, comprising a confederation of Russia, Belorussia, Ukraine, and the Transcaucasian Federation (divided in 1936 into the Georgian, Azerbaijan, and Armenian republics). Also known as the Soviet Union, the new communist state was the successor to the Russian Empire and the first country in the world to be based on Marxist socialism.

During the Russian Revolution of 1917 and subsequent three-year Russian Civil War, the Bolshevik Party under Vladimir Lenin dominated the soviet forces, a coalition of workers’ and soldiers’ committees that called for the establishment of a socialist state in the former Russian Empire. In the USSR, all levels of government were controlled by the Communist Party, and the party’s politburo, with its increasingly powerful general secretary, effectively ruled the country. Soviet industry was owned and managed by the state, and agricultural land was divided into state-run collective farms.

In the decades after it was established, the Russian-dominated Soviet Union grew into one of the world’s most powerful and influential states and eventually encompassed 15 republics–Russia, Ukraine, Georgia, Belorussia, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia. In 1991, the Soviet Union was dissolved following the collapse of its communist government.


German Almost Became Official Language

Claim: A proposal to make German the official language of the United States of America was defeated in Congress by one vote.


Status: False.

Origins: Legend has it that in 1795 a bill to establish German as the official language of the fledgling United States of America was defeated in Congress by a single vote. There never was such a vote indeed, there wasn’t any such bill, either. A proposal

before Congress in 1795 merely recommended the printing of federal laws in German as well as English, and no bill was ever actually voted upon.

This most famous of language legends began when a group of German-Americans from Augusta, Virginia, petitioned Congress, and in response to their petition a House committee recommended publishing three thousand sets of laws in German and distributing them to the states (with copies of statutes printed in English as well). The House debated this proposal on 1795 without reaching a decision, and a vote to adjourn and consider the recommendation at a later date was defeated by one vote, 42 to 41. There was no vote on an actual bill, merely a vote on whether or not to adjourn. Because the motion to adjourn did not pass, the matter was dropped. It was from this roll call on adjournment that the “German missed becoming the official language of the USA by one vote” legend sprang.

The House debated translating federal statutes into German again on 1795, but the final result was the approval of a bill to publish existing and future federal statutes in English only. This bill was approved by the Senate as well and signed into law by President George Washington a month later. The legend lives on, though, presented a vivid lesson that the foundations of our world aren’t always as solid as we think.


9 Things You May Not Know About Vladimir Lenin

1. Lenin’s brother was hanged for plotting to kill the czar.
Lenin’s older brother, Alexander, a university zoology student, was arrested in March 1887 for participating in a bombing plot to assassinate Czar Alexander III. Some of his co-conspirators begged for clemency and therefore had their sentences reduced. But Alexander initially refused to take that route, believing it would be “insincere.” Eventually, he sent an unrepentant letter to the czar in which he requested mercy for the sake of his mother. “[Her] health has been strongly shaken in recent days, and if my death sentence is carried out it will put her life in most serious peril,” Alexander wrote. The plea went unheeded, and he was hanged that May.

2. Lenin was kicked out of college.
In August 1887, just a few months after his brother’s death, 17-year-old Lenin entered Kazan University to study law. He was expelled that December, however, for taking part in a student protest. Though numerous attempts at readmission failed, he later enrolled as an external student at St. Petersburg University. Lenin completed his education there in 1891 and then briefly labored as a defense attorney. By that time, he had become enthralled by the work of famed communist thinker Karl Marx.

3. Lenin was exiled to Siberia for three years.
Lenin published his first Marxist essay in 1894, and the following year he traveled to France, Germany and Switzerland in order to meet with like-minded revolutionaries. Upon returning to Russia, he was arrested while working on the inaugural issue of a Marxist newspaper. He then spent over a year in jail prior to being sent off to Siberia, where he married a fellow exile and purportedly passed the time taking long walks, writing, hunting and swimming. Following the completion of his sentence in 1900, Lenin received government permission to leave the country. He remained abroad for most of the next 17 years, coming back only briefly during a failed revolutionary uprising in 1905.

4. Lenin was not his real name.
Born Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, Lenin tried out a number of pseudonyms, including “K. Tulin” and “Petrov,” prior to settling on “Lenin” by 1902. Historians believe it may have been a reference to the Lena River in Siberia. Other Russian revolutionaries likewise used pseudonyms, in part to confuse the authorities. Joseph Stalin’s birth name, for example, was Iosif Dzhugashvili, and Leon Trotsky’s was Lev Bronshtein.

5. Lenin hoped Russia would lose World War I.
When World War I broke out in 1914, every political faction in Russia supported the war effort except for Lenin’s Bolsheviks, who correctly predicted that defeat would bring about the czar’s downfall. Lenin even accepted financial assistance from Germany, one of Russia’s enemies in the conflict. In March 1917, with inflation rampant, food supplies low and the army in tatters, Czar Nicholas II was forced to abdicate. A sealed railroad car provided by Germany brought Lenin back to Russia the following month. That November, he engineered a new revolution, seizing power from the provisional government that had been in place since the czar’s collapse. On his first day in office, his regime abolished private landownership and began truce talks with the Germans. Despite agreeing to give up a huge chunk of territory in Finland, Ukraine, the three Baltic states and elsewhere in exchange for peace, the Bolsheviks annulled the deal once Germany surrendered to the Allied powers in November 1918. A few years later, much of that land was then incorporated into the newly formed Soviet Union.

6. Lenin quickly did away with an experiment in democracy.
Before taking power, Lenin spoke in favor of a popularly elected Constituent Assembly that would hash out a post-revolutionary form of government. But he quickly changed his tune after the Bolsheviks won only a quarter of the seats in November 1917 elections. When the assembly convened the following January in St. Petersburg’s Tauride Palace, the Bolshevik delegates attempted to disrupt the proceedings with a cacophony of noise. They then walked out after losing a vote to limit the assembly’s authority. After over 12 hours of deliberations, in which, among other things, they declared Russia a republic, the remaining delegates adjourned for the night. Before they could meet again, Lenin dissolved the body and posted guards outside the meeting hall. In so doing, he claimed to be carrying out the “will of the people.” Not long afterward, Lenin banned all political parties except his own, strictly censored the press and ruled, in his own words, �sed directly upon force, and unrestricted by any laws.”

7. Lenin succeeded where his brother had failed.
As civil war raged between Lenin’s supporters and opponents, Czar Nicholas II and his family were awakened on the night of July 16, 1918, and instructed to dress quickly. Their captors in Yekaterinburg, in the Ural Mountains, purportedly told them that the anti-Bolshevik White Army was closing in, and that they needed to move to a safer location. Instead, however, the czar, his wife, their five children and four servants were whisked into a basement, where a firing squad burst in and gunned them all down. According to the Bolsheviks, local government officials in Yekaterinburg made the decision to kill the royal family without consulting their superiors. Yet this version of events has not gone unchallenged. Historians who doubt Lenin’s innocence point, among other things, to an entry in Trotsky’s diary, in which he recalled a top Bolshevik official telling him: “[Lenin] believed that we shouldn’t leave the Whites a live banner to rally around.” In addition to the czar, the Bolsheviks executed thousands of other perceived political opponents without trial during the civil war, particularly after an August 1918 assassination attempt left Lenin with bullet wounds in his neck and shoulder. The White Army also committed many atrocities.

8. Lenin began to harbor serious doubts about Stalin.
Stalin, a close member of Lenin’s inner circle, became general secretary of the Communist Party in April 1922. Soon after, Lenin began to regret that appointment. In a letter to Russia’s congress, penned in December 1922 and January 1923 but not read until after his death, he described Stalin as “too rude.” “This failing … becomes intolerable in the office of general secretary,” he wrote, adding that Stalin should be replaced with someone “more patient, more loyal, more respectful and more attentive to his comrades, less capricious and so on.” In a separate letter, Lenin accused Stalin of having “the gall to call my wife to the telephone and abuse her.” Around that time, however, Lenin suffered a third stroke that left him essentially unable to speak. Stalin went on to win a vicious power struggle to succeed Lenin and become one of the 20th century’s most notorious dictators.

9. Lenin was mummified following his death.
Thousands upon thousands of mourners streamed past Lenin’s exposed coffin at his funeral, which took place a day after St. Petersburg was renamed Leningrad in his honor. A months-long embalming process then transpired, followed by the construction of a permanent mausoleum in Moscow’s Red Square. Lenin’s mummified body has been on display there ever since, except for a four-year period during World War II when it was moved to Siberia.


Recognition

Division of Germany and U.S. Non-Recognition of GDR, 1949 .

Following the German surrender to the Allied powers on May 8, 1945, Germany was occupied and divided into four zones. Each of the main Allied powers (the United States, the Soviet Union, Great Britain, and France) was responsible for the administration of its zone. In 1947, the United States and Great Britain merged their zones. After tensions arose between Soviets and the Western powers, the German Federal Republic (FRG, commonly known as West Germany) was created out of the American, British, and French zones on September 21, 1949. The Soviets then oversaw the creation of the German Democratic Republic ( GDR , commonly known as East Germany) out of their zone of occupation on October 7, 1949. The United States responded by stating its position that the GDR was “without any legal validity,” and that the United States would “continue to give full support to the Government of the German Federal Republic at Bonn in its efforts to restore a truly free and democratic Germany.” As prospects for early reunification of Germany dimmed, the United States established full diplomatic relations with the FRG on May 6, 1955.

Recognition of the German Democratic Republic, and the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations and the American Embassy in Berlin , 1974 .

In response to the improvement of relations between the two German governments, representatives of the United States and GDR negotiated arrangements for U.S. recognition of the GDR and the establishment of diplomatic relations, which occurred on September 4, 1974 , when the United States and East Germany released a joint communiqué to that effect. Despite this step taken to deal with the reality of the German situation, the United States continued until German reunification in 1990 to view the FRG as the sole legitimate successor government of the historical German state and a future reunified Germany.


Did German almost become America’s official language in 1795?

For centuries, stories have persisted about Congress almost approving German as our official language, except for one vote by its German-speaking leader. So how close is that story to the truth?

On April 1, 1789, Frederick Muhlenberg was chosen as the first speaker of the House of Representatives. Muhlenberg’s father, Henry, was born in Germany, and he was considered the founder of the Lutheran Church in the Colonies.

Young Frederick was born outside of Philadelphia he studied theology in Germany. He began his life of public service as a member of the Continental Congress. He also served as the speaker of Pennsylvania’s House and led the Pennsylvania delegation that ratified the Constitution.

Muhlenberg then emerged as the preferred candidate for the speaker’s role as the House neared a quorum for its first meeting in 1789.

During two terms as speaker, Muhlenberg was the first person to sign the Bill of Rights, but his tie-breaking vote on the controversial Jay Treaty proved to be his undoing. Muhlenberg lost a re-election bid after that, and his national political career was over.

But his “legendary” role in preventing the adoption of German as the United States’ official language gained steam over the years.

The late German academic Willi Paul Adams published a study in 1990 that included an explanation of why so many people believed Muhlenberg acted to block a congressional resolution that would have made German the national language.

“Fascinating for Germans, this imagined decision has been popularized by German authors of travel literature since the 1840s and propagated by some American teachers of German and German teachers of English who are not entirely secure in their American history,” Adams wrote.

“In reality, this presumed proposition was never brought to the congressional floor and a vote was never taken,” he added.

Dennis Baron, professor of English and linguistics at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, also tells a similar tale in an article he penned for PBS’s website, after the Muhlenberg legend popped up in an Ann Landers column.

“On January 13, 1795, Congress considered a proposal, not to give German any official status, but merely to print the federal laws in German as well as English. During the debate, a motion to adjourn failed by one vote. The final vote rejecting the translation of federal laws, which took place one month later, is not recorded,” Baron said, who cites two contemporary sources for the account.

Baron traces the legend to an 1847 book by Franz Löher called History and Achievements of the Germans in America, which Baron says “presents a garbled though frequently cited account of what is supposed to have happened.”

Adams also pointed out that just 9 percent of the early United States was German-speaking, and that the vast English-speaking majority would have had a few problems with the concept of an official language.

“Colonial speakers of English fought only for their political independence. They had no stomach for an anti-English language and cultural revolution,” Adams said.

Muhlenberg’s role in passing the Jay Treaty with Great Britain was much more controversial than his alleged involvement in promoting the German language.

The Senate had passed the treaty by a mandatory two-thirds majority, but the House was needed to fund its provisions. Muhlenberg sided with the Federalists against an opposition led by James Madison.

In 1796, he cast the key vote in recommending the House fund the treaty. According to several accounts, Muhlenberg was stabbed by his brother-in-law several days later for that act. He survived that attack and later died in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, in 1801.

Scott Bomboy is the editor in chief of the National Constitution Center.


Constitution Daily

April 1, 2019 by Scott Bomboy

For centuries, stories have persisted about Congress almost approving German as our official language, except for one vote by its German-speaking leader. So how close is that story to the truth?

On April 1, 1789, Frederick Muhlenberg was chosen as the first speaker of the House of Representatives. Muhlenberg&rsquos father, Henry, was born in Germany, and he played an important role in the establishment of the Lutheran Church in the Colonies.

Young Frederick was born outside of Philadelphia before serving as a minister and pastor in the colonies. He began his life of public service as a member of the Continental Congress. He also served as the Speaker of Pennsylvania&rsquos House and led the Pennsylvania delegation that ratified the Constitution.

Muhlenberg then emerged as the preferred candidate for the Speaker&rsquos role as the House neared a quorum for its first meeting in 1789.

During two terms as Speaker, Muhlenberg was the first person to sign the Bill of Rights, but his tie-breaking vote on the controversial Jay Treaty proved to be his undoing. Muhlenberg lost a re-election bid after that, and his national political career was over.

But his &ldquolegendary&rdquo role in preventing the adoption of German as the United States&rsquo official language gained steam over the years.

The late German academic Willi Paul Adams published a study in 1990 that included an explanation of why so many people believed Muhlenberg acted to block a congressional resolution that would have made German the national language.

&ldquoFascinating for Germans, this imagined decision has been popularized by German authors of travel literature since the 1840s and propagated by some American teachers of German and German teachers of English who are not entirely secure in their American history,&rdquo Adams wrote.

&ldquoIn reality, this presumed proposition was never brought to the congressional floor and a vote was never taken,&rdquo he added.

Dennis Baron, professor of English and linguistics at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, also tells a similar tale in an article he penned for PBS&rsquos website, after the Muhlenberg legend popped up in an Ann Landers column.

&ldquoOn January 13, 1795, Congress considered a proposal, not to give German any official status, but merely to print the federal laws in German as well as English. During the debate, a motion to adjourn failed by one vote. The final vote rejecting the translation of federal laws, which took place one month later, is not recorded,&rdquo Baron said, who cites two contemporary sources for the account.

Baron traces the legend to an 1847 book by Franz Löher called History and Achievements of the Germans in America, which Baron says &ldquopresents a garbled though frequently cited account of what is supposed to have happened.&rdquo

Adams also pointed out that just 9 percent of the early United States was German-speaking, and that the vast English-speaking majority would have had a few problems with the concept of an official language.

&ldquoColonial speakers of English fought only for their political independence. They had no stomach for an anti-English language and cultural revolution,&rdquo Adams said.

Muhlenberg&rsquos role in passing the Jay Treaty with Great Britain was much more controversial than his alleged involvement in rejecting the German language.

The Senate had passed the treaty by a mandatory two-thirds majority, but the House was needed to fund its provisions. Muhlenberg sided with the Federalists against an opposition led by James Madison.

In 1796, he cast the key vote in recommending the House fund the treaty. According to several accounts, Muhlenberg was stabbed by his brother-in-law several days later for that vote. He survived that attack and later died in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, in 1801.

Scott Bomboy is the editor in chief of the National Constitution Center.

Podcast: The Home Stretch of the 2020-21 Supreme Court Term

Kate Shaw and Jonathan Adler recap the Supreme Court&rsquos decisions from this term so far.


The USSR in Brief

The USSR was founded in 1922, five years after the Russian Revolution overthrew the monarchy of Czar Nicholas II. Vladimir Ilyich Lenin was one of the leaders of the revolution and was the first leader of the USSR until his death in 1924. The city of Petrograd was renamed Leningrad in his honor.

During its existence, the USSR was the largest country by area in the world. It included more than 8.6 million square miles (22.4 million square kilometers) and stretched 6,800 miles (10,900 kilometers) from the Baltic Sea in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east.

The capital of the USSR was Moscow, which is also modern Russia's capital city.

The USSR was also the largest communist country. Its Cold War with the United States (1947–1991) filled most of the 20th century with tension that extended throughout the world. During much of this time (1927–1953), Joseph Stalin was the totalitarian leader. His regime is known as one of the most brutal in world history tens of millions of people lost their lives while Stalin held power.

The decades after Stalin saw some reforms of his brutality, but Communist Party leaders became wealthy on the backs of the people. Bread lines were common in the 1970s as staples such as food and clothing were scarce.

By the 1980s, a new type of leader emerged in Mikhail Gorbachev. In an attempt to boost his country's sagging economy, Gorbachev introduced a pair of initiatives known as glasnost and perestroika.

Glasnost called for political openness and ended the banning of books and the KGB, allowed citizens to criticize the government, and allowed for other parties than the Communist Party to participate in elections. Perestroika was an economic plan that combined communism and capitalism.

Ultimately the plan was a failure, and the USSR was dissolved. Gorbachev resigned on December 25, 1991, and the Soviet Union ceased to exist six days later on December 31. Boris Yeltsin, a key leader of the opposition, later became the first president of the new Russian Federation.


The 6 Longest German Words (Lange Deutsche Wörter)

These words are listed in alphabetical order, with their gender and letter count.

Betäubungsmittelverschreibungsverordnung
(die, 41 letters)

It's a mesmerizing word that is rather difficult to read. This lengthy one refers to a "regulation requiring a prescription for an anesthetic."

Bezirksschornsteinfegermeister
(der, 30 letters)

This word may be short in comparison to those below, but it is a real word that you might be able to use someday, but even that's not likely. Roughly, it means a "head district chimney sweep."

Donaudampfschiffahrtselektrizitätenhauptbetriebswerkbauunterbeamtengesellschaft
(one word, no hyphen) (die, 79 letters, 80 with the new German spelling that adds one more 'f' in . dampfschifffahrts. )

Even the definition is a mouthful: "association of subordinate officials of the head office management of the Danube steamboat electrical services" (the name of a pre-war club in Vienna). This word is not really useful it's more of a desperate attempt to lengthen the word below.

Donaudampfschifffahrtsgesellschaftskapitän
(der, 42 letters)

As mentioned, in classic German this is considered the longest word. Its meaning of "Danube steamship company captain" makes it unusable for the majority of us, though.

Rechtsschutzversicherungsgesellschaften
(die, plur., 39 letters)

This is one you might actually be able to pronounce if you take it one syllable at a time. It means, "legal protection insurance companies." According to Guinness, this was the longest German dictionary word in everyday usage. However, the word below is a longer legitimate and official "longest word"—in semi-everyday usage, anyway.

Rindfleischetikettierungsüberwachungsaufgabenübertragungsgesetz
(das, 63 letters)

This hyper word references a "beef labeling regulation and delegation of supervision law." This was a 1999 German Word of the Year, and it also won a special award as the longest German word for that year. It refers to a "law for regulating the labeling of beef"—all in one word, which is why it is so long. German also likes abbreviations, and this word has one: ReÜAÜG.


Was German ever an official language in the USSR? - History

  • 500 - Germanic tribes move into northern Germany.
  • 113 - Germanic tribes begin to fight against the Roman Empire.
  • 57 - Much of the region is conquered by Julius Caesar and the Roman Empire during the Gallic Wars.





President Reagan at the Berlin Wall

Brief Overview of the History of Germany

The area that is now Germany was inhabited by Germanic speaking tribes for many centuries. They first became part of the Frankish Empire under the rule of Charlemagne, who is considered the father of the German monarchy. Much of Germany also became part of the Holy Roman Empire. From 1700 to 1918 the Kingdom of Prussia was established in Germany. In 1914 World War I broke out. Germany was on the losing side of the war and is estimated to have lost 2 million soldiers.


In the wake of WWI, Germany tried to recover. There was revolution and the monarchy collapsed. Soon a young leader named Adolf Hitler rose to power. He created the Nazi party which believed in the superiority of the German race. Hitler became dictator and decided to expand the German empire. He started WWII and at first conquered much of Europe including France. However, the United States, Britain and the Allies managed to defeat Hitler. After the war, Germany was divided into two countries East Germany and West Germany.

East Germany was a communist state under control of the Soviet Union, while West Germany was a free market state. The Berlin Wall was built between the two countries to prevent people from escaping from East Germany to the West. It became a central point and focus of the Cold War. However, with the collapse of the Soviet Union and communism, the wall was torn down in 1989. On October 3, 1990 East and West Germany were reunited into one country.


Watch the video: Ύμνος της Σοβιετικής Ένωσης (July 2022).


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