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29 June 1942

29 June 1942


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29 June 1942

Eastern Front

Russian 2nd Shock and 59th Armies destroyed by Germans. Only 33,000 prisoners captured.

War in the Air

Major Charles C. Kegelman and his crew become the first USAAF personnel to bomb occupied Europe, when they take part in an attack on a No.226 Squadron raid on the Hazebrouck marshalling yards.



Of Special Interest to Women

From Labor Action, Vol. 6 No. 26, 29 June 1942, p.ك.
Transcribed & marked up by Einde O’ Callaghan for the Encyclopaedia of Trotskyism On-Line (ETOL).

There has been great jubilation in Leon Henderson’s price-fixing department over the results of a special study by the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the cost of living for the period since the so-called ceilings want into effect. Mr. Henderson – after first offering his resignation to the President, presumably because he couldn’t do the impossible job of fixing prices – now pretends to be rubbing his hands with satisfaction. “At last the upward movement in living costs has been checked,” he says.

But this department of Labor Action responds: “Says who?” It has conducted a little study of its own regarding the cost of living. Not having the facilities of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, it had to use the homespun method of looking up the prices advertised by the A&P Super Markets during March 1942 and comparing them with prices charged, by the A&P today. A&P prices are about the average.

The information sought pertained to those foods that Mr. Henderson – for reasons best known to himself – did NOT put under the so-called ceiling. They constitute a good half of the food needs of a family and include fresh fruits and vegetables, dairy products, fowl and some meats. For these products – if she can still afford to buy them – the housewife is paying through her nose.

In the category of fresh fruits and vegetables, for instance, oranges and cabbages have gone up 33 per cent. Oranges were 12 for 25 cents in March and are now 8 for 25 cents. Cabbage was 3 cents a pound and is now 4 cents. Among the dairy products, butter costs 7½ per cent more, having risen from 39 to 42 cents a pound, while sharp store cheese climbed 16 per cent, from 32 to 37 cents a pound. At the meat counter, the dollar is a poor contender for what is sold there. The price of fowl is up 18 per cent, from 28 to 33 cents a pound. Leg of lamb costs 25 per cent more, from 28 to 35 cents a pound. Loin lamb chops top the list with an increase of 50 per cent, from 33 cents a pound in March to 49 cents a pound today.

To state these increases and write finis is not to tell the whole story. The final denouément is the inevitable lowering of the standard of living of the lowest paid workers. When oranges go up 33 per cent in price, children of the working class are drinking less orange juice. When chickens and lamb reach the high notes, it means . that the working class family has to forego even the occasional indulgence in these “delicacies.”

So “equality for all” is – as always under capitalism – a matter of dollars and cents Those who have, get – and those who haven’t, just do without. And this is the way in which the upward movement of living costs has been checked by Mr. Henderson.

In spite of the fact that war prosperity is supposed to have landed in the lap of the little people, the evidences of economic insecurity keep piling up. The title of ownership of that “cottage small by a waterfall” – which has ever been associated with family well-being – continues to pass from the name of the little man and his wife to that of the loan corporation.

As of April, 1942, in the imperial state of New York the Home Owners Loan Corporation, sponsored by the government, has had to take over for non-payment of obligations FORTY PER CENT of all the homes upon which it had made loans!

One-third of these unlucky “home owners” or over 10,000 of them, were compelled to surrender all their worldly goods since the outbreak of the war, that is, in the two and a half years from October 1939 to April 1942 – the period of the very acme of war prosperity, at least judging by corporation profits.

Whether in a particular case the cause of misfortune was priority unemployment, the breaking up of a family due to the draft, or the need for the bread-winner to pack up and try his luck elsewhere, the fact remains that economic insecurity is the iron law of capitalist society.

That alluring picture of a happy family protected behind the pretty starched curtains on windows one can call one’s own, belongs exclusively to the movies.

It is necessary at this time, when glib statesmen make elaborate promises for a “brave new world” after the war, to remember that the First World War was also euphoniously fought “to make the world a better place in live in.”

But during the post-war period and right up to and into the present war period, 90 per cent of Kentucky’s mountain children did not go to school and do not now go to school. Those comparatively few youngsters from the southern mountains who have a minimum of clothing to cover their nakedness so that they can attend school are so undernourished that “the education does them little good.” The schools themselves can hardly be graced by that name, for they are one-room buildings no better than shacks. The Save the Children Federation, whose “charity” makes no halt to the spread of poverty, has recently once again called public attention to the above situation in the South.

This is, however, only a little peep into one of the dirtiest of the dirty backyards of America which – you remember – the last war made “a better place to live in.”

The story is told of a young soldier who entered a USO Club and made a very unusual request. The apology for normal life which these clubs specialize in could not fill the need of this particular soldier. His yearning was not quieted by any of the ordinary make-shifts, such as dancing, watching a floor show or movie, listening to a radio, or what have you. For what this young man wanted, above all else, was to have the feel of a three-month-old baby in his arms. His own baby back home is just three months old, he said.

This department has no desire to use this touching incident as a tear-jerker. The useless tragedies of this war of ruling class rivalries are of proportions greater than the natural yearning in one man’s heart. Yet in a peculiarly succinct way this young soldier does exemplify the monstrous distortion of life to which war subjects humanity. For this reason the socialist cries out to the parents of today:

“You owe something more than facile love to your children. Your parents were caught in World War I, because of the capitalist struggle for markets and raw materials. You are the unwilling participants in World War II because of the same world-wide imperialist competition. When your children reach maturity, their destiny will be to fight in World War III because of the same lust of ruling classes for power for profit – unless you, the parents of today, pay your debt to your children and to the future. What is that debt? Support the cause of world socialism for universal peace and plenty!”


Contents

Indianapolis was the second of two ships in the Portland class, the third class of "treaty cruisers" constructed by the United States Navy following the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922, after the two vessels of the Pensacola class, ordered in 1926, and the six of the Northampton class, ordered in 1927. [7] Ordered for the US Navy in fiscal year 1930, Indianapolis was originally designated as a light cruiser because of her thin armor and given the hull classification symbol CL-35. She was reclassified a heavy cruiser, because of her 8-inch (203 mm) guns, with the symbol CA-35 on 1 July 1931, in accordance with the London Naval Treaty. [8]

As built, the Portland-class cruisers were designed for a standard displacement of 10,258 long tons (10,423 t), and a full-load displacement of 12,755 long tons (12,960 t). [9] However, when completed, Indianapolis did not reach this weight, displacing 9,950 long tons (10,110 t). [10] The ship had two distinctive raked funnels, a tripod foremast, and a small tower and pole mast aft. In 1943, light tripods were added forward of the second funnel on each ship, and a prominent Naval director was installed aft. [10]

The ship had four propeller shafts and four Parsons GT geared turbines and eight White-Forster boilers. The 107,000 shp (80,000 kW) gave a design speed of 32.7 kn (60.6 km/h 37.6 mph). She was designed for a range of 10,000 nmi (19,000 km 12,000 mi) at 15 kn (28 km/h 17 mph). [10] She rolled badly until fitted with a bilge keel. [8]

The cruiser had nine 8-inch/55 caliber Mark 9 guns in three triple mounts, a superfiring pair fore and one aft. For anti-aircraft defense, she had eight 5-inch/25 caliber guns and two QF 3 pounder Hotchkiss guns. In 1945, she received twenty-four 40 mm (1.57 in) Bofors guns, arrayed in six quad mounts. Both ships were upgraded with nineteen 20 mm (0.79 in) Oerlikon cannons. [3] The ship did not have torpedo tubes. [11]

The Portland-class cruisers originally had 1-inch (25 mm) armor for deck and side protection, but in construction [8] they were given belt armor between 5 in (127 mm) (around the magazines) and 3.25 in (83 mm) in thickness. [11] Armor on the bulkheads was between 2 in (51 mm) and 5.75 in (146 mm) that on the deck was 2.5 in (64 mm), the barbettes 1.5 in (38 mm), the gunhouses 2.5 in, and the conning tower 1.25 in (32 mm). [10]

Portland-class cruisers were outfitted as fleet flagships, with space for a flag officer and his staff. The class also had two aircraft catapults amidships. [10] They could carry four aircraft. The total crew varied, with a regular designed complement of 807 [9] and a wartime complement of 952, which could increase to 1,229 when the cruiser was a fleet flagship. [10]

Indianapolis was laid down by New York Shipbuilding Corporation on 31 March 1930. [10] The hull and machinery were provided by the builder. [8] Indianapolis was launched on 7 November 1931, and commissioned on 15 November 1932. [10] She was the second ship named for the city of Indianapolis, following the cargo ship of the same name in 1918. She was sponsored by Lucy M. Taggart, daughter of former Mayor of Indianapolis Thomas Taggart. [12]

Under Captain John M. Smeallie, Indianapolis undertook her shakedown cruise through the Atlantic and into Guantánamo Bay, until 23 February 1932. Indianapolis then transited the Panama Canal for training off the Chilean coast. After overhaul at the Philadelphia Navy Yard, she sailed to Maine to embark President Franklin Delano Roosevelt at Campobello Island, New Brunswick, on 1 July 1933. [12] Getting underway the same day, Indianapolis arrived at Annapolis, Maryland, on 3 July. She hosted six members of the Cabinet, along with Roosevelt, during her stay there. After disembarking Roosevelt, she departed Annapolis on 4 July, and steamed for Philadelphia Navy Yard. [13]

On 6 September, she embarked Secretary of the Navy Claude A. Swanson, for an inspection of the Navy in the Pacific. Indianapolis toured the Canal Zone, Hawaii, and installations in San Pedro and San Diego. Swanson disembarked on 27 October. On 1 November 1933, she became flagship of Scouting Force 1, and maneuvered with the force off Long Beach, California. She departed on 9 April 1934, and arrived at New York City, embarking Roosevelt, a second time, for a naval review. She returned to Long Beach on 9 November 1934 for more training with the Scouting Force. She remained flagship of Scouting Force 1 until 1941. On 18 November 1936, she embarked Roosevelt a third time at Charleston, South Carolina, and conducted a goodwill cruise to South America with him. She visited Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Buenos Aires, Argentina, and Montevideo, Uruguay, for state visits before returning to Charleston and disembarking Roosevelt's party on 15 December. [13] President Roosevelt underwent his crossing the line ceremony on this cruise on 26 November: an "intensive initiation lasting two days, but we have all survived and are now full-fledged Shellbacks". [14]

On 7 December 1941, Indianapolis, leading Task Force 3, (Indianapolis and destroyer-minesweepers Dorsey, Elliot, and Lamberton from MineDiv 6, and Southard and Long from MineDiv 5 [15] ) was conducting a mock bombardment at Johnston Atoll during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Indianapolis was absorbed into Task Force 12 and searched for the Japanese carriers responsible for the attack, though the force did not locate them. She returned to Pearl Harbor on 13 December and joined Task Force 11. [13]

New Guinea campaign Edit

With the task force, she steamed to the South Pacific, to 350 mi (560 km) south of Rabaul, New Britain, escorting the aircraft carrier Lexington. Late in the afternoon of 20 February 1942, the American ships were attacked by 18 Japanese aircraft. Of these, 16 were shot down by aircraft from Lexington and the other two were destroyed by anti-aircraft fire from the ships. [13]

On 10 March, the task force, reinforced by another force centered on the carrier Yorktown, attacked Lae and Salamaua, New Guinea, where the Japanese were marshaling amphibious forces. Attacking from the south through the Owen Stanley mountain range, the US air forces surprised and inflicted heavy damage on Japanese warships and transports, losing few aircraft. Indianapolis returned to the Mare Island Naval Shipyard for a refit before escorting a convoy to Australia. [13]

Aleutian Islands campaign Edit

Indianapolis then headed for the North Pacific to support American units in the Battle of the Aleutian Islands. On 7 August, Indianapolis and the task force attacked Kiska Island, a Japanese staging area. Although fog hindered observation, Indianapolis and other ships fired their main guns into the bay. Floatplanes from the cruisers reported Japanese ships sunk in the harbor and damage to shore installations. After 15 minutes, Japanese shore batteries returned fire before being destroyed by the ships' main guns. Japanese submarines approaching the force were depth-charged by American destroyers and Japanese seaplanes made an ineffective bombing attack. In spite of a lack of information on the Japanese forces, the operation was considered a success. US forces later occupied Adak Island, providing a naval base farther from Dutch Harbor on Unalaska Island.

1943 operations Edit

In January 1943, Indianapolis supported a landing and occupation on Amchitka, part of an Allied island hopping strategy in the Aleutian Islands. [13]

On the evening of 19 February, Indianapolis led two destroyers on a patrol southwest of Attu Island, searching for Japanese ships trying to reinforce Kiska and Attu. She intercepted the Japanese 3,100-long-ton (3,150 t) cargo ship, Akagane Maru laden with troops, munitions, and supplies. The cargo ship tried to reply to the radio challenge but was shelled by Indianapolis. Akagane Maru exploded and sank with all hands. Through mid-1943, Indianapolis remained near the Aleutian Islands, escorting American convoys and providing shore bombardments supporting amphibious assaults. In May, the Allies captured Attu, then turned on Kiska, thought to be the final Japanese holdout in the Aleutians. Allied landings there began on 15 August, but the Japanese had already abandoned the Aleutian Islands, unbeknownst to the Allies. [13]

After refitting at Mare Island, Indianapolis moved to Hawaii as flagship of Vice Admiral Raymond A. Spruance, commanding the 5th Fleet. She sortied from Pearl Harbor on 10 November, with the main body of the Southern Attack Force for Operation Galvanic, the invasion of the Gilbert Islands. On 19 November, Indianapolis bombarded Tarawa Atoll, and next day pounded Makin (see Battle of Makin). The ship then returned to Tarawa as fire-support for the landings. Her guns shot down an enemy plane and shelled enemy strongpoints as landing parties fought Japanese defenders in the Battle of Tarawa. She continued this role until the island was secure three days later. The conquest of the Marshall Islands followed victory in the Gilberts. Indianapolis was again 5th Fleet flagship.

1944 Edit

The cruiser met other ships of her task force at Tarawa, and on D-Day minus 1, 31 January 1944, she was one of the cruisers that bombarded the islands of Kwajalein Atoll. The shelling continued on D-Day, with Indianapolis suppressing two enemy shore batteries. Next day, she destroyed a blockhouse and other shore installations and supported advancing troops with a creeping barrage. The ship entered Kwajalein Lagoon, on 4 February, and remained until resistance disappeared (see Battle of Kwajalein).

In March and April, Indianapolis, still flagship of the 5th Fleet, attacked the Western Carolines. Carrier planes at the Palau Islands on 30–31 March, sank three destroyers, 17 freighters, five oilers and damaged 17 other ships. Airfields were bombed and surrounding water mined. Yap and Ulithi were struck on 31 March, and Woleai on 1 April. Japanese planes attacked but were driven off without damaging the American ships. Indianapolis shot down her second plane, a torpedo bomber, and the Japanese lost 160 planes, including 46 on the ground. These attacks prevented Japanese forces stationed in the Carolines from interfering with the US landings on New Guinea.

In June, the 5th Fleet was busy with the assault on the Mariana Islands. Raids on Saipan began with carrier-based planes on 11 June, followed by surface bombardment, in which Indianapolis had a major role, from 13 June (see Battle of Saipan). On D-Day, 15 June, Admiral Spruance heard that battleships, carriers, cruisers, and destroyers were headed south to relieve threatened garrisons in the Marianas. Since amphibious operations at Saipan had to be protected, Spruance could not withdraw too far. Consequently, a fast carrier force was sent to meet this threat while another force attacked Japanese air bases on Iwo Jima and Chichi Jima, in the Bonin and Volcano Islands, bases for potential enemy air attacks.

A combined US fleet fought the Japanese on 19 June in the Battle of the Philippine Sea. Japanese carrier planes, which planned to use the airfields of Guam and Tinian to refuel and rearm, were met by carrier planes and the guns of the Allied escorting ships. That day, the US Navy destroyed a reported 426 Japanese planes while losing 29. [16] Indianapolis shot down one torpedo plane. This day of aerial combat became known as the "Marianas Turkey Shoot". With Japanese air opposition wiped out, the US carrier planes sank Hiyō, two destroyers, and one tanker and damaged others. Two other carriers, Taihō and Shōkaku, were sunk by submarines.

Indianapolis returned to Saipan on 23 June to resume fire support and six days later moved to Tinian to attack shore installations (see Battle of Tinian). Meanwhile, Guam had been taken, and Indianapolis became the first ship to enter Apra Harbor since early in the war. The ship operated in the Marianas for the next few weeks, then moved to the Western Carolines, where further landings were planned. From 12 to 29 September, she bombarded Peleliu, in the Palau Group, before and after the landings (see Battle of Peleliu). She then sailed to Manus Island, in the Admiralty Islands, where she operated for 10 days before returning to the Mare Island Naval Shipyard in California for refitting.

1945 Edit

Overhauled, Indianapolis joined Vice Admiral Marc A. Mitscher's fast carrier task force on 14 February 1945. Two days later, the task force launched an attack on Tokyo to cover the landings on Iwo Jima, scheduled for 19 February. This was the first carrier attack on mainland Japan since the Doolittle Raid. The mission was to destroy Japanese air facilities and other installations in the Home Islands. The fleet achieved complete tactical surprise by approaching the Japanese coast under cover of bad weather. The attacks were pressed home for two days. The US Navy lost 49 carrier planes while claiming 499 enemy planes, a 10-to-1 kill/loss ratio. The task force also sank a carrier, nine coastal ships, a destroyer, two destroyer escorts, and a cargo ship. They destroyed hangars, shops, aircraft installations, factories, and other industrial targets.

Immediately after the strikes, the task force raced to the Bonin Islands to support the landings on Iwo Jima. The ship remained there until 1 March, protecting the invasion ships and bombarding targets in support of the landings. Indianapolis returned to VADM Mitscher's task force in time to strike Tokyo, again on 25 February, and Hachijō, off the southern coast of Honshū, the following day. Although weather was extremely bad, the American force destroyed 158 planes and sank five small ships while pounding ground installations and destroying trains.

The next target for the US forces was Okinawa, in the Ryukyu Islands, which were in range of aircraft from the Japanese mainland. The fast carrier force was tasked with attacking airfields in southern Japan until they were incapable of launching effective airborne opposition to the impending invasion. The fast carrier force departed for Japan from Ulithi on 14 March. On 18 March, she launched an attack from a position 100 mi (160 km) southeast of the island of Kyūshū. The attack targeted airfields on Kyūshū, as well as ships of the Japanese fleet in the harbors of Kobe and Kure, on southern Honshū. The Japanese located the American task force on 21 March, sending 48 planes to attack the ships. Twenty-four fighters from the task force intercepted and shot down all the Japanese aircraft.

Indianapolis was assigned to Task Force 54 (TF 54) for the invasion of Okinawa. When TF 54 began pre-invasion bombardment of Okinawa on 24 March, Indianapolis spent 7 days pouring 8-inch shells into the beach defenses. During this time, enemy aircraft repeatedly attacked the American ships. Indianapolis shot down six planes and damaged two others. On 31 March, the day before the Tenth Army (combined U.S. Army and U.S. Marine Corps) started its assault landings, the Indianapolis lookouts spotted a Japanese Nakajima Ki-43 "Oscar" fighter as it emerged from the morning twilight and dived vertically towards the bridge. The ship's 20 mm guns opened fire, but within 15 seconds the plane was over the ship. Tracers converged on it, causing it to swerve, but the pilot managed to release his bomb from a height of 25 ft (7.6 m), then crashing his plane into the sea near the port stern. The bomb plummeted through the deck, into the crew's mess hall, down through the berthing compartment, and through the fuel tanks before crashing through the keel and exploding in the water underneath. The concussion blew two gaping holes in the keel which flooded nearby compartments, killing nine crewmen. The ship's bulkheads prevented any progressive flooding. Indianapolis, settling slightly by the stern and listing to port, steamed to a salvage ship for emergency repairs. Here, inspection revealed that her propeller shafts were damaged, her fuel tanks ruptured, and her water-distilling equipment ruined. But Indianapolis commenced the long trip across the Pacific, under her own power, to the Mare Island Navy Yard for repairs.

Secret mission Edit

After major repairs and an overhaul, Indianapolis received orders to undertake a top-secret mission of the utmost significance to national security: to proceed to Tinian island carrying the enriched uranium [17] (about half of the world's supply of uranium-235 at the time) and other parts required for the assembly of the atomic bomb codenamed "Little Boy", which would be dropped on Hiroshima a few weeks later. [18]

Indianapolis was then sent to Guam, where a number of the crew who had completed their tours of duty were relieved by other sailors. Leaving Guam on 28 July, she began sailing toward Leyte, where her crew was to receive training before continuing on to Okinawa to join Vice Admiral Jesse B. Oldendorf's Task Force 95. [ citation needed ]

At 00:15 on 30 July, Indianapolis was struck on her starboard side by two Type 95 torpedoes, one in the bow and one amidships, from the Japanese submarine I-58, [21] captained by Commander Mochitsura Hashimoto, who initially thought he had spotted the New Mexico-class battleship Idaho. [23] The explosions caused massive damage. Indianapolis took on a heavy list (the ship had had a great deal of armament and gun-firing directors added as the war went on, and was therefore top-heavy) [24] and settled by the bow. Twelve minutes later, she rolled completely over, then her stern rose into the air and she sank. Some 300 of the 1,195 crewmen aboard went down with the ship. [4] With few lifeboats and many without life jackets, the remainder of the crew was set adrift. [25]

Rescue Edit

Navy command did not know of the ship's sinking until survivors were spotted in the open ocean three and a half days later. At 10:25 on 2 August, a PV-1 Ventura flown by Lieutenant Wilbur "Chuck" Gwinn and his copilot, Lieutenant Warren Colwell, and a PBY 2 piloted by Bill Kitchen spotted the men adrift while on a routine patrol flight. [26] Gwinn immediately dropped a life raft and radio transmitter. All air and surface units capable of rescue operations were dispatched to the scene at once.

First to arrive was an amphibious PBY-5A Catalina patrol plane flown by Lieutenant Commander (USN) Robert Adrian Marks. Marks and his flight crew spotted the survivors and dropped life rafts one raft was destroyed by the drop while others were too far away from the exhausted crew. Against standing orders not to land in open ocean, Marks took a vote of his crew and decided to land the aircraft in twelve-foot (3.7 m) swells. He was able to maneuver his craft to pick up 56 survivors. Space in the plane was limited, so Marks had men lashed to the wing with parachute cord. His actions rendered the aircraft unflyable. After nightfall, the destroyer escort USS Cecil J. Doyle, the first of seven rescue ships, used its search light as a beacon and instilled hope in those still in the water. Cecil J. Doyle and six other ships picked up the remaining survivors. After the rescue, Marks' plane was sunk by Cecil J. Doyle as it could not be recovered. [27]

Many of the survivors were injured, and all suffered from lack of food and water (leading to dehydration and hypernatremia some found rations, such as Spam and crackers, among the debris of the Indianapolis), exposure to the elements (dehydration from the hot sun during the day and hypothermia at night, as well as severe desquamation due to continued exposure to salt water and bunker oil), and shark attacks, while some killed themselves or other survivors in various states of delirium and hallucinations. [28] [29] Only 316 of the nearly 900 men set adrift after the sinking survived. [4] Two of the rescued survivors, Robert Lee Shipman and Frederick Harrison, died in August 1945.

"Ocean of Fear", a 2007 episode of the Discovery Channel TV documentary series Shark Week, states that the sinking of Indianapolis resulted in the most shark attacks on humans in history, and attributes the attacks to the oceanic whitetip shark species. Tiger sharks may also have killed some sailors. The same show attributed most of the deaths on Indianapolis to exposure, salt poisoning, and thirst/dehydration, with the dead being dragged off by sharks. [30]

Navy failure to learn of the sinking Edit

The Headquarters of Commander Marianas on Guam and of the Commander Philippine Sea Frontier on Leyte kept Operations plotting boards on which were plotted the positions of all vessels with which the headquarters were concerned. However, it was assumed that ships as large as Indianapolis would reach their destinations on time, unless reported otherwise. Therefore, their positions were based on predictions and not on reports. On 31 July, when she should have arrived at Leyte, Indianapolis was removed from the board in the headquarters of Commander Marianas. She was also recorded as having arrived at Leyte by the headquarters of Commander Philippine Sea Frontier. Lieutenant Stuart B. Gibson, the operations officer under the Port Director, Tacloban, was the officer responsible for tracking the movements of Indianapolis. The vessel's failure to arrive on schedule was known at once to Gibson, who failed to investigate the matter and made no immediate report of the fact to his superiors. Gibson received a letter of reprimand in connection with the incident. The acting commander and operations officer of the Philippine Sea Frontier also received reprimands, while Gibson's immediate superior received a letter of admonition. [31]

In the first official statement, the Navy said that distress calls "were keyed by radio operators and possibly were actually transmitted" but that "no evidence has been developed that any distress message from the ship was received by any ship, aircraft or shore station". [31] Declassified records later showed that three stations received the signals but none acted upon the call. One commander was drunk, another had ordered his men not to disturb him, and a third thought it was a Japanese trap. [32]

Immediately prior to the attack, the seas had been moderate, the visibility fluctuating but poor in general, and Indianapolis had been steaming at 17 kn (20 mph 31 km/h). When the ship failed to reach Leyte on 31 July, as scheduled, no report was made that she was overdue. The Navy then created the Movement Report System to prevent such disasters in the future. [33]

Court-martial of Captain McVay Edit

Captain Charles B. McVay III, who had commanded Indianapolis since November 1944 through several battles, survived the sinking, though he was one of the last to abandon ship, and was among those rescued days later. In November 1945, he was court-martialed on two charges: failing to order his men to abandon ship and hazarding the ship. Cleared of the charge of failing to order abandon ship, McVay was convicted of "hazarding his ship by failing to zigzag". Several aspects of the court-martial were controversial. There was evidence that the Navy itself had placed the ship in harm's way. McVay's orders were to "zigzag at his discretion, weather permitting" however, McVay was not informed that a Japanese submarine was operating in the vicinity of his route from Guam to Leyte. Further, Mochitsura Hashimoto, commander of I-58, testified that zigzagging would have made no difference. [34] Fleet Admiral Chester Nimitz remitted McVay's sentence and restored him to active duty. McVay retired in 1949 as a rear admiral. [35]

While many of Indianapolis 's survivors said McVay was not to blame for the sinking, the families of some of the men who died thought otherwise: "Merry Christmas! Our family's holiday would be a lot merrier if you hadn't killed my son", read one piece of mail. [36] The guilt that was placed on his shoulders mounted until he committed suicide in 1968, using his Navy-issued revolver. McVay was discovered on his front lawn by his gardener with a toy sailor in one hand, and a revolver in the other. [37] He was 70 years old.

McVay's record cleared Edit

In 1996, sixth-grade student Hunter Scott began his research on the sinking of Indianapolis for a class history project. Scott's effort led to an increase in national publicity, which got the attention of retired Congressional lobbyist Michael Monroney, who had been scheduled to be assigned to Indianapolis before she shipped out on her final voyage. Around the same time, Captain William J. Toti, USN, final commanding officer of the fast attack nuclear submarine USS Indianapolis (SSN-697) received an appeal from several Indianapolis survivors to assist with the exoneration effort. Toti then demonstrated through analysis that the tactic of zigzagging would not have spared the Indianapolis from at least one torpedo hit by the I-58. [38] Monroney, whose son-in-law was on the staff of Senator Bob Smith (R, NH), brought the matter to the attention of his son-in-law, who was able to get the issue in front of Smith. Smith convinced Senator John Warner (R, VA) to hold hearings on the Senate Armed Services Committee on 14 September 1999, in which several Indianapolis survivors testified. Also called to testify in the hearings were Vice Chief of Naval Operations Admiral Donald Pilling, Director of Naval History Center Dr. William Dudley, and the Judge Advocate General of the Navy Rear Admiral John Hutson. The hearings were reported to sway Senator Warner into allowing a "Sense of Congress" resolution clearing Captain McVay's name to be passed to full Congress for a vote. In October 2000, the United States Congress passed a resolution that Captain McVay's record should state that "he is exonerated for the loss of Indianapolis". President Bill Clinton also signed the resolution. [39] The resolution noted that, although several hundred ships of the US Navy were lost in combat during World War II, McVay was the only captain to be court-martialed for the sinking of his ship. [40] In July 2001, United States Secretary of the Navy Gordon England directed Captain Toti to enter the Congressional language into McVay's official Navy service record, clearing him of all wrongdoing. [41] [42]


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Here is a compilation of the archival boxes we hold at the 29th Infantry Division Archives.

Maryland Military Historical Society: 29th Infantry Division Archives, Group I

Box 1: 29th Division, daily G-3 reports with map overlays, 1 November 1944 – 31 March 1945, originals.

Box 2: 29th Division, daily G-3 reports with map overlays, 7 June – 31 December 1944, copies.

Box 3: 29th Division, daily G-3 reports with map overlays, 7 June – 31 October 1944, originals.

Box 4: 29th Division, daily G-3 reports with map overlays, 1 January – 10 July 1945, copies.

Box 5: 29th Division, weekly G-3 reports with map overlays, 5 August – 1 December 1945, originals.

Box 6: 29th Division, daily G-3 reports with map overlays, 1 April – 5 August 1945, originals.

Box 7: 29th Division, weekly G-3 reports with map overlays, 11 July – 30 September 1945, copies.

Box 8: 29th Infantry Division, unit histories, 1944, Box 1.
-115th Infantry Regiment 1944
-175th Infantry Regiment 1944
-116th Infantry Regiment 1944
-104th Medical Battalion 1944
-MP Platoon, 29th Infantry Division 1944
-Medical Department articles, January – June 1945, 29th Division
-Medical Department activities, 1944, 29th Division
-Medical Department activities, 1945, 29th Division
-History of the Headquarters Special Troops
-29th Infantry Division Band 1944

Box 9: 29th Infantry Division, unit histories, 1944, Box 2.
-110th Field Artillery Battalion 1944
-29th Quartermaster Company 1944
-227th Field Artillery Battalion 1944
-29th Infantry Division Headquarters 1944
-29th Artillery 1944
-29th Infantry Division 1944
-29th Signal Comapany 1944
-29th Cavalry Reconnaissance Troop 1944
-111th Field Artillery 1944
-121st Engineer Combat Battalion 1944
-29th Headquarters Special Troops 1944
-224th Field Artillery Battalion 1944
-283rd Field Artillery Battalion 1944
-554th Anti-Aircraft Artillery Battalion 1944
-729th Ordinance Company 1944
-747th Tank Battalion 1944
-70th Field Artillery 1944
-821st Tank Destroyer Battalion 1944

Box 10: 29th Infantry Division, unit information, rosters, histories, photos, Box 1.
-29th Infantry Division, Headquarters and Headquarters Company
-29th Infantry Division
-29th Cavalry Reconnaissance Troop
-29th MP Platoon
-29th Signal Company
-104th Medical Battalion
-Company B, 104th Medical Battalion
-Company D, 104th Medical Battalion
-Company E, 104th Quartermaster Regiment
-Clearing Company, 104th Medical Battalion
-Battery A, 110th Field Artillery Battalion
-115th Infantry
-111th Field Artillery Battalion
-D-Day Roster, 111th Filed Artillery Battalion
-115th Infantry, Medical Detachment
-Service Company, 115th Infantry
-Company A, 115th Infantry
-Company B, 115th Infantry
-2nd Battalion, 115th Infantry
-Company G, 115th Infantry
-Company H, 115th Infantry
-3rd Battalion, 115th Infantry
-Company K, 115th Infantry
-Company I, 115th Infantry
-Company L, 115th Infantry
-116th Infantry
-Headquarters Company, 116th Infantry
-Company A, 116th Infantry
-Company B, 116th Infantry
-Company C, 116th Infantry, D-Day
-Company D, 116th Infantry
-2nd Battalion, 116th Infantry Unit Journal
-Company E, 116th Infantry
-Company F, 116th Infantry
-Company G, 116th Infantry
-Company H, 116th Infantry
-Company I, 116th Infantry
-Company K, 116th Infantry, D-Day
-Company L, 116th Infantry
-Company M, 116th Infantry
-Cannon Company, 116th Infantry
-3rd Battalion Officers, 116th Infantry
Box 11: 29th Infantry Division, Unit Info, Rosters, Histories WWII 29th ID: Box 2
-121st Engineer Combat Battalion, List of Officers and BU Journal
-Unit History of the 121st Engineer Battalion, August 1918-January 1943
-121st Engineer Combat Battalion, Company A
-121st Engineer Combat Battalion, Company B
-121st Engineer Combat Battalion, Company C
-175th Infantry
-175th Infantry, Company A
-175th Infantry, Company B
-175th Infantry, Company C
-175th Infantry, Company D
-HHC Company, 2nd Battalion, 175th Infantry
-175th Infantry, Company E
-175th Infantry, Company F
-175th Infantry, Company G
-Service Company, 175th Infantry
-HHC Company, 3rd Battalion, 175th Infantry
-175th Infantry Company I, Soldier on list 262 to Omaha Beach
-Anti-Tank Company, 175th Infantry
-Cannon Company, 175th Infantry
-Medical Detachment, 175th Infantry
-224th Field Artillery Battalion, All Batteries
-227th Field Artillery Battalion, All Batteries
-Headquarters, 227th Field Artillery Battalion
-729th Ordnance Company

Box 12: 29th Infantry Division, Miscellaneous subjects, cemeteries, POW, sports, War Room, chaplains, ect. Box 3.
-Cemeteries, 29th Infantry Division
-29th Infantry Division, Distinguished Service Cross recipients, WWII
-29th Infantry Division, Prisoners of War
-29th Infantry Division, Special Rocket Battery
-29th Infantry Division Officers detached to British Army, March 1943
-29th Infantry Division, 1943 Basketball Team, ETO Champions
-29th Division “Air Force” (L-4)
-29th Infantry Division, WWII Battlefield Commissions
-29th Infantry Division Headquarters Company War Room Tent
-First 29ers to return to the United States
-29th Infantry Division Baseball Team
-29th Division Chaplains

Box 13: 29th Infantry Division, G-3 Journals, Extra Copies

Box 14: 115th Infantry Morning Reports, 2nd Battalion, HHC & Companies E, F, G, H.
-Company G, 115th Infantry – June 1944

Box 15: 175th Infantry Morning Reports HHC, service, Anti-Tank, Cannon Companies and Medical Detachment
-Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 175th Infantry – June 1944
-Anti-Tank Company, 175th Infantry – June 1944
-Service Company, 175th Infantry – June 1944
-Medical Detachment, 175th Infantry – June 1944
- Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 175th Infantry – July 1944
-Service Company, 175th Infantry – July 1944
-Anti-Tank Company, 175th Infantry – July 1944
-Service Company, 175th Infantry – August 1944
-Medical Detachment, 175th Infantry – July 1944
-Anti-Tank Company, 175th Infantry – August 1944
-Medical Detachment, 175th Infantry – August 1944
- Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 175th Infantry – August 1944
-Cannon Company, 175th Infantry – July 1944
-Cannon Company, 175th – August 1944
-Cannon Company, 175th Infantry – June 1944

Box 16: 175th Infantry Morning Reports, 1st Battalion HHC & Companies A, B, C, D.
-Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 1st Battalion, 175th Infantry – June 1944
-Company A, 175th Infantry – June 1944
-Company B, 175th Infantry – June 1944
-Company C, 175th Infantry- June 1944
-Company D, 175th Infantry – June 1944
- Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 1st Battalion, 175th Infantry – July 1944
-Company A, 175th Infantry – July 1944
-Company B, 175th Infantry – July 1944
-Company C, 175th Infantry – July 1944
-Company D, 175th Infantry – July 1944
- Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 1st Battalion, 175th Infantry – August 1944
-Company A, 175th Infantry – August 1944
-Company B, 175th Infantry – August 1944
-Company C, 175th Infantry – August 1944
-Company D, 175th Infantry – August 1944

Box 17: 175th Infantry Morning Reports, 2nd Battalion HHC & Companies E, F, G, H.
-Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 2nd Battalion, 175th Infantry – June 1944
-Company E, 175th Infantry – June 1944
-Company F, 175th Infantry – June 1944
-Company G, 175th Infantry – June 1944
-Company H, 175th Infantry – June 1944
- Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 2nd Battalion, 175th Infantry – July 1944
-Company E, 175th Infantry – July 1944
-Company F, 175th Infantry – July 1944
-Company G, 175th Infantry – July 1944
-Company H, 175th Infantry – July 1944
- Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 2nd Battalion, 175th Infantry – August 1944
-Company E, 175th Infantry – August 1944
-Company F, 175th Infantry – August 1944
-Company G, 175th Infantry – August 1944
-Company H, 175th Infantry – August 1944

Box 18: 175th Infantry Morning Reports, 3rd Battalion HHC & Companies I, K, L, M.
-Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 3rd Battalion, 175th Infantry – June 1944
-Company K, 175th Infantry – June 1944
-Company L, 175th Infantry – June 1944
-Company M, 175th Infantry – June 1944
- Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 3rd Battalion, 175th Infantry – July 1944
-Company I, 175th Infantry – July 1944
-Company K, 175th Infantry – July 1944
-Company L, 175th Infantry – July 1944
- Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 3rd Battalion, 175th Infantry – August 1944
-Company M, 175th Infantry – July 1944
-Company I, 175th Infantry – June 1944
-Company K, 175th Infantry – August 1944
-Company L, 175th Infantry – August 1944
-Company M, 175th Infantry – August 1944
-Company I, 175th Infantry – August 1944

Box 19: Company C, 121st Engineer, Combat Battalion, Morning Reports.

Box 20: 29th Infantry Division, Historical Files, D-Day, June 6th, 1944.
-Company A/116th Infantry. “The Suicide Wave” article
-Combat Interviews, D-Day 1/116th Infantry, conducted September 1944
-Combat Interviews, D-Day 2/116th Infantry, conducted September 1944
-Combat Interviews, D-Day 3/116th Infantry, conducted September 1944
-116th Infantry D-Day Landing Diagrams and USN Landing Craft assignments
-Combat Interviews, D-Day 11th Field Artillery battalion, conducted September 1944
-116th Infantry, Field Order No.1, D-Day
-115th Infantry D-Day Landing Diagram LCI, LST, LCT

Box 21: 115th Infantry operations journal, July 1944

Box 22: 29th Infantry Division, historical files, Brest / Brittany, August – September 1944 Box 1.
-Info on S/Sgt Sherwood Hallman F/175 Medal of Honor September 1944 Brest
-Surrender messages between Ramcke and Middleton September 1944 and translated German Document from Ramcke
-Don van Roosen H/115 September 11-18, 1944 Brest
-Disposition of French Resistance forces Brest environs, August 1944
-Air support in Breast Campaign and notes on Sportsplatz, Julich August – September 1944
-L/175 on September 8th, 1944 near Laninguer Brest
-1/115 attack on Fort Penfeld September 8th, 1944
-709th Tank Battalion at Brest
-Information on German Units at Brest, including G-2 Intelligence Summary
-Kergonaut Strongpoint 115th Infantry August – September 1944
-Lt. Col. William Witte, 29th ID G-3, summary of 29th ID operations at Brest, August – September 1944
-Use of 141st regiment Crocodile Tanks (flamethrowers) with 29th ID September 1944
-Capture of Hill 103, 175th Infantry August – September 1944
-Summary of VIII Corps Operations in Brittany August – September 1944
-NY Times Articles on Brest
-8th Infantry Division at Brest August – September 1944
-6th Armored Division in Brittany article by MG Grow
-116th Infantry – shift of 12 miles to South, 27 – 28 August 1944 Brest
-Movement from Normandy to Brittany by truck, August 1944
-2nd Infantry Division at Brest August – September 1944
-1/115 Attack southeast of Guilers September 5, 1944
-Diary of Sgt. Ekehard Priller, 2nd German Parachute Division
-Overlord plans for use of Brest as a supply base
-1/116 attack on La Trinite September 5th, 1944
-General Patton’s comments on Brittany and Brest
-German 343rd Division at Brest
-Fort Keriolet, 1/116 August 1944
-German Diary, Siege of Brest, August – September 1944

Box 23: 29th Infantry Division historical files, Brest and Brittany, August – September 1944 Box 2.
-2nd and 5th Ranger Battalions at Brest August – September 1944
-3/116 and Ranger in TF “Sugar” September 1944
-C/175 Attack on Sugar Loaf Hill (Naval Butts_ September 14th, 1944
-Fort Montbarey September 1944
-115th Infantry, Final Reduction of Brest 11 – 16 September 1944
-Kergvillo, German HQ and Signal Center Brest
-29th ID “Riding Academy” and General Gerhardt’s absence from Division, September 19th – 26th, 1944
-Witte on Final Stage of Brest attack discussion of German Fortifications
-Yannick Creach – Correspondence with Balkoski on Brest, August – September 1944
-Final attack on Brest, 175th Infantry September 13 -18, 1944
-116th Infantry final attack on Brest, September 17th, 1944
-29 Let’s Go Newsletters on fall of Brest, September 1944
-Operation Wadham, deception plan for invasion of Brittany, June 1943
-Operations of the 29th Infantry Division at Brest
-29th Division Artillery Air OP Journal and Weather September 1944
-Captain Robert Walker, S-2 116th Infantry Memoirs – Brest
-Info on General Ramcke, German Commander of Brest garrison
-Colonel Philip Dwyer, CO 116th Infantry, correspondence on Brest, August – September 1944
-LTC John P Cooper comments on 29 LG manuscript, Brest August – September 1944

Box 24: 29th Infantry Division Documents related to training period in England, 1942-1944
-29th Infantry Division, Division Staff, September 1943
-121st Engineer Combat Battalion, Exercise Duck, January – March 1944
-History of the 29th Infantry Division 1941 – 1943

Box 25: 29th Infantry Division Historical Files, Normandy, June 7 – August 21, 1944
-German Organization of Deliberate Defense in Depth
-29th Infantry Division, Tank-Infantry Tactics, June 1944
-St. Lo, Post-Combat Interviews, July 1944
-Hill 108, June 17 – June 18, 1944, with Allsup’s maps
-German 3rd Fallschirmjäger Division (parachute) in Normandy
-General Notes 1st and 29th Infantry Divisions
-2nd Battalion, 115th Infantry at Le Carrefour, June 9 – 10, 1944
-Notes on operations of the XIX Coprs
-Information on Task Force “C”, 18 July, 1944
-Liberation of Colombieres, June 8 – 9, 1944
-17th SS Panzer Grenadier Division in Normandy, including action of the US 175th Infantry, June 12 – 13, 1944
-Distinguished Unit Citation, 29th Infantry Division
-The “Quesada Incident” August 2nd – 3rd, 1944
-German Propaganda Leaflet, picked up July 3rd, 1944, by 1st Battalion, 115th Infantry
-Battle of Percy, July 1944
-Medical Corps in Normandy (Dr. E. Beachaun’s article)
-“Omaha beachhead” – Comments, m/s by Gerow, Gerhardt, Huebner
-3rd Battalion, 116th Infantry action at Grandcamp June 8th, 1944 in which T/Sgt. Peregory won Medal of Honor
-Positions of the 29th Division Infantry Battalions June 9th – June 13th. 1944
-Aure Valley Inundation Intelligence Report 3 May, 1944
-747th Tank Battalion, War Journal, June 6 – 20, 1944 Also 745th Tank Battalion Journal
-Liberation of Vire, August 1944
-1st Battalion, 116th Infantry, Capture of Hill 203, Vire, August 7th, 1944
-175th Infantry at Villebaudon, July 1944

Box 26: 29th Infantry Division, Historical files, Holland and Germany, 30 September – 16 December 1944 Box 1.
-Sgt. Edward C. Humphrey Company B, 12st Engineer Combat Battalion
-Combat exhaustion in 29th Infantry Division
-29th Infantry Division Training Center, Fall 1944
-Raid on Schierwaldenrath by 1st Battalion, 115th Infantry, October 7th, 1944
-Company K, 115th Infantry Schierwaldenrath Raid, October 3 – 4, 1944
-116th Infantry, 1st and 2nd Battalions on right flank with 30th Division, October 1 – 24, 1944
-3rd Battalion, 116th Infantry with 2nd Armored Division, October 4 – 24, 1944
-113th Cavalry Group, October – November 1944
-175th Infantry Raids, October 7th – 29th 1944
-175th Infantry Raids, October 1944
-2nd Battalion, 115th Infantry, raid on tower October 15 -16, and October 13, 1944
-3rd Battalion, 175th Infantry at Brebern, October 1 – 5, 1944
-113th Cavalry Group, November 1944
-29th Infantry Division, train and motor trip, Brittany to Holland, September 1944
-747th Tank Battalion
-747th Tank Battalion
-German article on October 26th, 1944 on Aachen in “Deutche Allegmeine Zeitung”
-29th Infantry Division, “marking of Installations, Roads, and Vehicles”
-29th Infantry Division Aviation OPs, Divisional Artillery, June 1944 – May 1945
-Report on destruction of German Pillbox West wall, October 10, 1944 Company E, 175th Infantry
-Dutch Troops attached to 29th Infantry Division, October 1944
-29th Division Signal Techniques, June 1944 – January 1945
-Captain James Burt, Commanding Officer Company B, 66th Armor, 2nd Armored Division. Medal of Honor with 116th Infantry at Würselen, October 1944
-99th Infantry Battalion at Würselen with 116th Infantry, October 20 – 23, 1944
-Major General Raymond McLain, commanding General XIX Corps
-Le Tomahawk XIX Corps Newsletter, October 1944
-Company B, 115th Infantry raid on Waldenrath, October 29th, 1944
-“Starts and Stripes” episode with Gerhardt, October 1944, Private Malin
-1st Battalion, 115th Infantry, Hatterath and Neiderheid, October 1 – 6, 1944.

Box 27: 29th Infantry Division, Historical files, Holland and Germany, 30 September – 16 December 1944 Box 2
-Ike’s Visit to 29th Infantry Division, November 10th, 1944
-German Units on Aachen Front
-General Gerhardt’s “Battle Lessons and Conclusions” for November 1944
-29th Infantry Division and German Civilians
-Anti-Tank Doctrine, 29th Infantry Division 1945
-Hasenfeld Gut, December 1944
-Sportplatz and defense of the Roer, December 1 – 8, 1944, 115th and 116th Infantry.
-November 1944, Miscellaneous papers, 29th Infantry Division
-115th Infantry, attack on Durboslar. 175th Infantry, attack on Aldenhoven
-175th Infantry, attack on Siersdorf and Bettendorf and Schleiden, November 16 – 17, 1944
-175th Infantry, attack on Bourheim
-1st and 2nd Battalion, 116th Infantry, attack on Setterich, November 17 – 19, 1944
-116th Infantry attack on Koslar, November 24 – 29, 1944
-115th Infantry attack on Kirchberg, November 27 – 28, 1944
-December 1 – 9, 1944 artillery use in clearing east bank of the Roer River
-29th Infantry Division Offensive – terrain descriptions
-29th Infantry Division, assignments to Corps and Army, January 1945 visit by Montgomery to 29th Infantry Division Command Post, Siersdorf
-115th Infantry, attack on Siersdorf, November 16 – 18, 1944
- 1:25,000 map of November offensive German Map, photo CD Julich
-NY Times Articles on November 1944 offensive
-October 29, 1944 raids by 115th and 175th Infantry
-Information on Dutch towns and rest areas
-Thanksgiving and Christmas 1944

Box 28: 115th Infantry Operations Journal, June 1944

Box 29: 115th Infantry Operations Journal, August 1944

Box 30: 115th Infantry Operations Journal, September 1944

Box 31: 3rd Battalion, 115th Infantry Operations Journal, October 1944

Box 32: 115th Infantry Operations Journal, December 1944

Box 33: 175th Infantry Operations Journals, June and July 1944, and POW Record

Box 34: 29th Infantry Division War Room Journal, June 1 – 30, 1944

Box 35: 29th Infantry Division War Room Journal, July 1 – 21, 1944

Box 36: 29th Infantry Division War Room Journal, October 1 – 31, 1944

Box 37: 29th Infantry Division, Maryland National Guard Newsletters
-“Attention to Orders” 1938 – 1940
-“Maryland National Guardsmen” 1922
-“1st Maryland Infantry Guidon” 1937
-“Maryland national Guardsmen” 1948

Box 38: 29th Infantry Division
-“Defenses of Brest”
-“Battle Deaths”
-“Effects of Air Power on Military Operations”

Box 39: WWI AEF – 29th Division 115th Infantry, Captain Clark
-WWI Gaylord Clark
-WWI Camp McClellan, Alabama
-History of Headquarters Company, 115th Infantry, WWI
-WWI 29th Division orders in France
-WWI 18th Division
-WWI 115th Infantry, orders, ect. in France
-WWI Misc.

Box 40: 29th Division WWI, Personal Papers
-Carl J. Muth
-Walter E. Black
-Frederick S. Schmitt
-Clarence G. Yeatman
-Henry G. Costin, Company H, 115th Infantry, Medal of Honor winner
-1st Lieutenant Patrick Regan, Company H, 115th Infantry, Medal of Honor winner
-Otto May Company C, 115th Infantry
-Clark, Gaylord Lee Company E, 5th Maryland Regiment

Box 41: 29th Division WWI, Camp McClellan Alabama, and Camp Meade, Newspapers 1917

Box 42: 29th Division WWI, Miscellaneous Records Box 2
-29th Division- Distinguished Service Cross recipients WWI
-Sergeant George Bussey, Company L, 115th Infantry
-115th Infantry, Company E, Passenger lists, return to US, 1919
-115th Infantry Patrol reports, August – September 1918
-115th Infantry Field Orders, August – October 1918
-“Daily Raid” 29th Division Newsletter
-115th Infantry, Company E, Report of Operations
-115th Infantry, Company E roster
-29th Division Operations Reports

Box 43: 29th Division WWI, 110th Field Artillery Regiment (Also 1920s)
-Bowie-WWI-AEF GHQ Battalion
-Bowie-WWI miscellaneous
-Bowie- 110th Field Artillery Battalion WWI
-Bowie-WWI Artillery Notes
-110th Field Artillery-Drills and Inspections, 1924-1925
-110th Field Artillery Regiment-Training Schedules 1926-1927-1929
-110th Field Artillery Regiment-Training Schedules 1930-1931
-Tobyhanna Encampments-1925, 1926, 1927, 1928, 1930, 1931

Box 44: Wilson Collection, Photos: Company H, 5th Maryland 1916 Company C, 115th Infantry 1918
-Clark, Gaylord Lee Eagle Pass, Texas. Negatives (Photos)
-Don Campbell, fathers stuff, Eagle Pass
-Certificates of Physical Examination
-1st Maryland, Spanish-American War Mobilization
-Troop A, Maryland Cavalry Muster Roll, WWI
-Maryland Naval Militia 1912 Rosters
-112th Machine Gun Battalion Muster Rolls, WWI
-Maryland Brigade Muster Roll 1916
-5th Maryland Roster 1916
-1st Maryland Rosters – Eagle Pass, Texas 1916
-1st Maryland Infantry Muster Rolls 1916
-Headquarters Company, 1st Maryland, Muster Roll 1916
-Company A, 1st Maryland Roster, Eagle Pass 1916 (1955 Recreation)
-Rosters of Maryland National Guard Units 1916 Field Hospital, Troop A, 1st, 4th, & 5th Regiments
-Field Hospital No.1 Roster 1916
-Sanitary Detachment roster 1916

Box 45: D-Day Radio Coverage, June 6th, 1944
-CDs containing radio coverage of D-Day

Box 46: WWII Photographs, Miscellaneous

Box 47: 29th Infantry Division, Monthly After-Action Report, Cover Art Scans

Box 48: CDs / DVDs Oral History Interviews Box 2

Box 49: 29th Infantry Division Interviews with soldiers on CD, DVD, and Tape. Box 1

Box 50: 29th Infantry Division, WWII records on CDs. Box 1

Box 51: 29th Infantry Division, WWII records on CDs

Box 52: 29th Infantry Division War Room Journals June 1944 – May 1945

Box 53: 29th Division Photographs 1946 # 1 – 16

Box 54: 29th Division Photographs 1946 # 17 – 30

Box 55: 29th Division Photographs (Negatives) Box 1

Box 56: 29th Division Photographs (Negatives) Box 2

Box 57: 29th Infantry Division, Negative File, Box 3

Box 58: 104th Observation Squadron (Photographs)

Box 59: List of Attendees, 50th Anniversary Trip to Normandy, June 1994

Box 60: 29th Division Photographs

Box 61: 29th Infantry Division Miscellaneous WWII Photos

Box 62: WWII Photographs Miscellaneous

Box 63: 116th Infantry Morning Reports, 1st Battalion, HHC and Companies A, B, C, and D June – September 1944
-HHC, 1st Battalion, 116th Infantry June 1944
-Company A, 116th Infantry June 1944
-Company B, 116th Infantry June 1944
-Company C, 116th Infantry June 1944
-Company D, 116th Infantry June 1944
-HHC, 1st Battalion, 116th Infantry July 1944
-Company A, 116th infantry July 1944
-Company B, 116th Infantry July 1944
-Company C, 116th Infantry July 1944
-Company D, 116th Infantry July 1944

Box 64: 116th Infantry Morning Reports, HHC, Service, Antitank, and Cannon Companies, Medical Detachment June – September 1944
-HHC, 116th Infantry June 1944
-Antitank Company, 116th Infantry June 1944
-Cannon Company, 116th Infantry June 1944
-Medical Detachment, 116th Infantry June 1944
-Service Company, 116th Infantry June 1944
-HHC, 116th Infantry July 1944
-Antitank Company, 116th Infantry July 1944
-Cannon Company, 116th Infantry July 1944
-Medical Detachment, 116th Infantry July 1944
-Service Company, 116th Infantry July 1944

Box 65: 116th Infantry Morning Reports, 2nd Battalion HHC and Companies E, F, G, and H June – September 1944
-HHC, 2nd Battalion, 116th Infantry June 1944
-Company E, 116th Infantry June 1944
-Company F, 116th Infantry June 1944
-Company G, 116th Infantry June 1944
-Company H, 116th Infantry June 1944
-HHC, 2nd Battalion, 116th Infantry July 1944
-Company E, 116th Infantry July 1944
-Company F, 116th Infantry July 1944
-Company G, 116th Infantry July 1944
-Company H, 116th Infantry July 1944

Box 66: 116th Infantry Morning Reports, 3rd Battalion HHC and Companies I, K, L, M June – September 1944
-HHC, 3rd Battalion, 116th Infantry June 1944
-Company I, 116th Infantry June 1944
-Company K, 116th Infantry June 1944
-Company L, 116th Infantry June 1944
-Company M, 116th Infantry June 1944
-HHC, 3rd Battalion, 116th Infantry July 1944
-Company I, 116th Infantry July 1944
-Company K, 116th Infantry July 1944
-Company L, 116th Infantry July 1944
-Company M, 116th Infantry July 1944

Box 67: 116th Infantry Morning Reports HHC, service, Antitank, and Cannon Companies, Medical Detachment October 1944 – January 1945
-HHC, 116th Infantry, October 1944
-Antitank Company, 116th Infantry, October 1944
-Cannon Company, 116th Infantry, October 1944
-Medical Detachment, 116th Infantry, October 1944
-Service Company, 116th Infantry, October 1944
-HHC, 116th Infantry, November 1944
-Antitank Company, 116th Infantry, November 1944
-Cannon Company, 116th Infantry, November 1944
-Medical Detachment, 116th Infantry, November 1944
-Service Company, 116th Infantry, November 1944
-HHC, 116th Infantry, December 1944
-Antitank Company, 116th Infantry, December 1944
-Cannon Company, 116th Infantry, December 1944
-Medical Detachment, 116th Infantry, December 1944
-Service Company, 116th Infantry, December 1944
-HHC, 116th Infantry, January 1945
-Antitank Company, 116th Infantry, January 1945
-Cannon Company, 116th Infantry, January 1945
-Medical Detachment, 116th Infantry, January 1945
-Service Company, 116th Infantry, January 1945

Box 68: 116th Infantry Morning Reports, 1st Battalion HHC and Companies A, B, C, and D October 1944 – January 1945
-HHC, 1st Battalion, 116th Infantry, October 1944
-Company A, 116th Infantry, October 1944
-Company B, 116th Infantry, October 1944
-Company C, 116th Infantry, October 1944
-Company D, 116th Infantry, October 1944
-HHC, 1st Battalion, 116th Infantry, November 1944
-Company A, 116th Infantry, November 1944
-Company B, 116th Infantry, November 1944
-Company C, 116th Infantry, November 1944
-Company D, 116th Infantry, November 1944
-HHC, 1st Battalion, 116th Infantry, December 1944
-Company A, 116th Infantry, December 1944
-Company B, 116th Infantry, December 1944
-Company C, 116th Infantry, December 1944
-Company D, 116th Infantry, December 1944
-HHC, 1st Battalion, 116th Infantry, January 1945
-Company A, 116th Infantry, January 1945
-Company B, 116th Infantry, January 1945
-Company C, 116th Infantry, January 1945
-Company D, 116th Infantry, January 1945

Box 69: 116th Infantry Morning Reports, 2nd Battalion HHC and Companies E, F, G, and H October 1944 – January 1945
-HHC, 2nd Battalion, 116th Infantry, October 1944
-Company E, 116th Infantry, October 1944
-Company F, 116th Infantry, October 1944
-Company G, 116th Infantry, October 1944
-Company H, 116th Infantry, October 1944
-HHC, 2nd Battalion, 116th Infantry, November 1944
-Company E, 116th Infantry, November 1944
-Company F, 116th Infantry, November 1944
-Company G, 116th Infantry, November 1944
-Company H, 116th Infantry, November 1944
-HHC, 2nd Battalion, 116th Infantry, December 1944
-Company E, 116th Infantry, December 1944
-Company F, 116th Infantry, December 1944
-Company G, 116th Infantry, December 1944
-Company H, 116th Infantry, December 1944
-HHC, 2nd Battalion, 116th Infantry, January 1945
-Company E, 116th Infantry, January 1945
-Company F, 116th Infantry, January 1945
-Company G, 116th Infantry, January 1945
-Company H, 116th Infantry, January 1945

Box 70: 116th Infantry Morning Reports, 3rd Battalion HHC and Companies I, K, L, and M October 1944 – January 1945
-HHC, 3rd Battalion, 116th Infantry, October 1944
-Company I, 116th Infantry, October 1944
-Company K, 116th Infantry, October 1944
-Company L, 116th Infantry, October 1944
-Company M, 116th Infantry, October 1944
-HHC, 3rd Battalion, 116th Infantry, November 1944
-Company I, 116th Infantry, November 1944
-Company K, 116th Infantry, November 1944
-Company L, 116th Infantry, November 1944
-Company M, 116th Infantry, November 1944
-HHC, 3rd Battalion, 116th Infantry, December 1944
-Company I, 116th Infantry, December 1944
-Company K, 116th Infantry, December 1944
-Company L, 116th Infantry, December 1944
-Company M, 116th Infantry, December 1944
-HHC, 3rd Battalion, 116th Infantry, January 1945
-Company I, 116th Infantry, January 1945
-Company K, 116th Infantry, January 1945
-Company L, 116th Infantry, January 1945
-Company M, 116th Infantry, January 1945

Box 71: 116th Infantry Morning Reports HHC, service, Antitank, and Cannon Companies, Medical Detachment February – May 1945
-HHC, 116th Infantry, February 1945
-Antitank Company, 116th Infantry, February 1945
-Cannon Company, 116th Infantry, February 1945
-Medical Detachment, 116th Infantry, February 1945
-Service Company, 116th Infantry, February 1945
-HHC, 116th infantry, March 1945
-Antitank Company, 116th Infantry, March 1945
-Cannon Company, 116th Infantry, March 1945
-Medical Detachment, 116th Infantry, March 1945
-Service Company, 116th Infantry, March 1945
-HHC, 116th Infantry, April 1945
-Antitank Company, 116th Infantry, April 1945
-Cannon Company, 116th Infantry, April 1945
-Medical Detachment, 116th Infantry, April 1945
-Service Company, 116th Infantry, April 1945
-HHC, 116th Infantry, May 1945
-Antitank Company, 116th Infantry, May 1945
-Cannon Company, 116th Infantry, May 1945
-Medical Detachment, 116th Infantry, May 1945
-Service Company, 116th Infantry, May 1945

Box 72: 116th Infantry Morning Reports, 1st Battalion HHC and Companies A, B, C, and D February – May 1945
-HHC, 1st Battalion, 116th Infantry, February 1945
-Company A, 116th Infantry, February 1945
-Company B, 116th Infantry, February 1945
-Company C, 116th Infantry, February 1945
-Company D, 116th Infantry, February 1945
-HHC, 1st Battalion, 116th Infantry, March 1945
-Company A, 116th Infantry, March 1945
-Company B, 116th Infantry, March 1945
-Company C, 116th Infantry, March 1945
-Company D, 116th Infantry, March 1945
-HHC, 1st Battalion, 116th Infantry, April 1945
-Company A, 116th Infantry, April 1945
-Company B, 116th Infantry, April 1945
-Company C, 116th Infantry, April 1945
-Company D, 116th Infantry, April 1945
-HHC, 1st Battalion, 116th Infantry, May 1945
-Company A, 116th Infantry, May 1945
-Company B, 116th Infantry, May 1945
-Company C, 116th Infantry, May 1945
-Company D, 116th Infantry, May 1945

Box 73: 116th Infantry Morning Reports, 2nd Battalion HHC and Companies E, F, G, and H February – May 1945
-HHC, 2nd Battalion, 116th Infantry, February 1945
-Company E, 116th Infantry, February 1945
-Company F, 116th Infantry, February 1945
-Company G, 116th Infantry, February 1945
-Company H, 116th Infantry, February 1945
-HHC, 2nd Battalion, 116th Infantry, March 1945
-Company E, 116th Infantry, March 1945
-Company F, 116th Infantry, March 1945
-Company G, 116th Infantry, March 1945
-Company H, 116th Infantry, March 1945
-HHC, 2nd Battalion, 116th Infantry, April 1945
-Company E, 116th Infantry, April 1945
-Company F, 116th Infantry, April 1945
-Company G, 116th Infantry, April 1945
-Company H, 116th Infantry, April 1945
-HHC, 2nd Battalion, 116th Infantry, May 1945
-Company E, 116th Infantry, May 1945
-Company F, 116th Infantry, May 1945
-Company G, 116th Infantry, May 1945
-Company H, 116th Infantry, May 1945

Box 74: 116th Infantry Morning Reports, 3rd Battalion HHC and Companies I, K, L, and M February – May 1945
-HHC, 3rd Battalion, 116th Infantry, February 1945
-Company I, 116th Infantry, February 1945
-Company K, 116th Infantry, February 1945
-Company L, 116th Infantry, February 1945
-Company M, 116th Infantry, February 1945
-HHC, 3rd Battalion, 116th Infantry, March 1945
-Company I, 116th Infantry, March 1945
-Company K, 116th Infantry, March 1945
-Company L, 116th Infantry, March 1945
-Company M, 116th Infantry, March 1945
-HHC, 3rd Battalion, 116th Infantry, April 1945
-Company I, 116th Infantry, April 1945
-Company K, 116th Infantry, April 1945
-Company L, 116th Infantry, April 1945
-Company M, 116th Infantry, April 1945
-HHC, 3rd Battalion, 116th Infantry, May 1945
-Company I, 116th Infantry, May 1945
-Company K, 116th Infantry, May 1945
-Company L, 116th Infantry, May 1945
-Company M, 116th Infantry, May 1945

Box 75: Hill 108 Ceremony, June 2009
-Hill 108, Part I
-Hill 108, Part II

Box 76: 29th Infantry Division Photos WWII

Box 77: 29th Infantry Division History Booklet Manuscript 1945
-29th Division History Booklet Manuscript, 1945

Box 78: “29 Let’s Go!” Newsletters WWII (Color Versions) June – December 1944
-June 1944
-July 1944
-August 1944
-September 1944
-October 1944
-November 1944
-December 1944

Box 79: “29 Let’s Go!” Newsletters WWII (Color Versions) January – July 1945
-February 1945
-March 1945
-April 1945
-May 1945
-June 1945, Transfer of 29th Division Personnel to 69th Division
-“29 Let’s Go!” Newspapers, March – September 1945
-“29, We’re Home” Newsletter January 1946

Box 80: “29 Let’s Go!” Newsletter, June 1944 – July 1945
-Major T. Dukehart
-Colonel W. Witte
-June 1944
-July 1944
-August 1944
-September 1944
-October 1944
-November 1944
-December 1944
-January 1945
-February 1945
-March 1945
-April 1945
-May 1945
-June 1945
-July 1945
-January 1946

Box 81: 29th Infantry Division Photographs WWII

Box 82: MD National Guard Photographs, Eagle Pass, Texas, 1916

Box 83: 29th Division Photographs WWI

Box 84: 29th Infantry Division WWII Photographs, 110th Field Artillery Battalion 1943 – 1945

Box 85: 29th Infantry Division War Room Journal, January 1945

Box 86: 121st Engineer Combat Battalion Battalion Journal Unit Reports, June 1944
-121st Engineer Combat Battalion, Battalion Journal, June 1944
-121st Engineer Combat Battalion, “Unit Reports”, June 1944

Box 87: 29th Infantry Division, “Historical Data” WWII Unit Commendations, Individual Decorations

Box 88: History of the 224th Field Artillery Battalion, Notes and Collected Information by Colonel Jarman
-Replies – Jan Material
-224th Field Artillery Battalion – After Action Report WWII
-224th Field Artillery Battalion – Unit History years 1942, 1943, 1944
-Colonel Jarman Notes – 224th Field Artillery Battalion History
-Miscellaneous, Colonel Jarman
-Passenger List HMT Queen Elizabeth, 5 October 1942
-224th Field Artillery Battalion
-AG Reports – written by Colonel Jarman
-Sources of Information (Publications)
-Pictures – England
-Announcement – Replies Thereto
-History – 1st Draft

Box 89: 29th Infantry Division WWII Division Headquarters Guestbook and Field Grade Officers Signature Book

Box 90: 29th Infantry Division WWII Photographs, Omaha Beach Air reconnaissance and beach panorama photographs

Box 91: 29th Infantry Division Documents Related to Training Period in US 1941 – 1942
-Virginia National Guard Officers, January 1941
-History of the 29th Infantry Division, 1941 – 1943

Box 92: 115th Infantry History

Box 93: 29th Infantry Division, General Orders October – December 1944
-29th Infantry Division, General Orders October 1944
-29th Infantry Division, General Orders November 1944
-29th Infantry Division, General Orders December 1944

Box 94: 29th Division Oral History Interviews, Cassette Tapes by Joe Balkoski 1984 – 1990

Box 95: Chaplain (Captain) Eugene Patrick O’ Grady, 3/115 29th Infantry Division

Box 96: 115th Infantry Headquarters Journal, January – June 1944 and May 1945

Box 97: 29th Infantry Division Omaha Beach Photographs and 227th Field Artillery Battalion Book and Brest Photographs
-Compact Disk – Omaha Beach, photos and old French postcards
-Compact Disk – Old French photos of Omaha Beach
-Compact Disk – 1944 Brittany Peninsula, 2006 Indy Air Show, 2004 111th Field Artillery Reunion
-Compact Disk – Omaha Beach Photos
-Compact Disk – Brest Images
-Compact Disk – All My Love Forever
-Compact Disk – Omaha reconnaissance and panorama photos, 110th Field Artillery, 29th Division

Box 98: Omaha Beach, Utah beach photographs, 60th Anniversary D-Day photos 2004

Box 99: The 5th “Doughboy” Newsletter September 1933

Box 100: Chinstrap Newspapers, Fort Meade 1941 – 1942

Box 101: “29 Let’s Go!” 29th Division WWII Sketchbooks, Private Charles Murphy, 121st Engineer Combat Battalion and Information on Private Murphy

Box 102: 110th Field Artillery Battalion, Framed Photographs, 1942 – 1943

Box 103: Sketches, Private James Craig, K/175, 29th Infantry Division, 1941 – 1942 Fort Meade, Maryland Staff Sergeant Raymond Flagg, 121st Engineer Battalion, 1942 – 1943 Tidewater, England

Box 104: XIX Corps “Tomahawk” Newsletter and Map, October 1944, June – August 1944

Box 105: COX 29th Infantry Division Manuscript, April 2010

Box 106: 29th Division Re-enactors “29 Let’s Go!” Newsletter

Box 107: 29th Infantry Division “Vixen Tor” General Gerhardt’s Jeep Sargent Robert Cuff, driver.

Box 108: 29th Infantry Division, “Lessons Learned” and “Battle Experiences”
-29th Division Battle Experiences

Box 109: 29th Infantry Division Signal Company

Box 110: 9th US Army Operations, Historical Study, November 1944 & “November Offensive” 29th Infantry Division Study

Box 111: 29th Division Association Annual Reunion Programs, Box 1

Box 112: 29th Division Association Annual Reunion Programs Box 2

Box 113: 29th Infantry Division Daily Patrol, Report File, January – February 1945, Roer River, also October – November 1944

Box 114: 115th Infantry, S-2 Journals August 23 – October 27 1944 – December 7 1944

Box 115: 115th Infantry, 2nd Battalion Journal, July 1944 – May 1945

Box 116: 175th Infantry “Daily Bulletin” Occupation May – December 1945 and Journal May – July 1945

Box 117: 29th Infantry Division, Maryland National Guard Induction Rosters, February 3, 1941

Box 118: 29th Infantry Division, After – Action Reports, June 1944

Box 119: 29th Infantry Division, After – Action Reports, July 1944

Box 120: 29th Infantry Division, After – Action Reports, August 1944

Box 121: 29th Infantry Division After – Action Reports, September 1944

Box 122: 29th Infantry Division, After – Action Reports, October 1944

Box 123: 29th Infantry Division, After – Action Reports, November 1944

Box 124: 29th Infantry Division, After – Action Reports, December 1944

Box 125: 29th Infantry Division, After – Action Reports, January 1945

Box 126: 29th Infantry Division, After – Action Reports, February 1945

Box 127: 29th Infantry Division, After – Action Reports, March 1945

Box 128: 29th Infantry Division, After – Action Reports, June 1945

Box 129: 29th Infantry Division, After – Action Reports, July 1945

Box 130: 29th Infantry Division, After – Action Reports, August 1945

Box 131: 29th Infantry Division, After – Action Reports, September 1945

Box 132: 29th Infantry Division, After – Action Reports, October 1945

Box 133: Joseph Ewing, 175th Infantry and 29th Infantry Division Historian Correspondence and WWII Diary

Box 134: 29th Infantry Division, Extra Copies After – Action Reports

Box 135: Notable Personnel
-Sangston, Laurence Purdy
-Thompson, Paul 6th Engineer Special Bde
-McAllister, Richard A. 5th Maryland Regiment
-Reinke, Colonel Harry August
-Ausland, John C. 29th Field Artillery Battalion / 4th Infantry Division
-Bixler, Harry E. Company H 115th Infantry
-Bohlman, Harold R. WWI Aviation
-Brittingham, Elmer A. Pre-war
-Chatman Jr., Captain Thomas
-Dodge, Lieutenant Colonel George W.
-Goldstein, Comptroller Louis L.
-Hatch Sr., Edward S.
-MacCubbin, Emmett C.
-Masson, Charles Augustus Air National Guard
-Mathias, Herbert G. 1st Maryland Regiment
-Priller, Ekkerhard German Army Paratrooper (Fallschrimjaeger)
-Ritter Roy
-Gault, Colonel H. Kelcey Air National Guard Officer
-Gillespoe, W. Thomas Air National Guard
-Guerra, William 1st Engineers

Box 136: “Chin Strap” Newsletters, Company G, 175th Infantry, 1944 – 1945

Box 137: Scrapbook Roy E. Miller, 115th Infantry

Box 138: Miscellaneous CDs / DVDs from Joe’s Desk 2004 – 2010

Box 139: Captain William Ogletree, 110th Field Artillery Battalion, 1942 sketch by Trafford Klots, Fort A.P. Hill

Box 140: Pencil Sketch Draft, Larry Selman, “Clearing the Vierville Draw” Painting 2007

Box 141: Captain (Chaplain) Patrick O’Grady, 115th Infantry, 29th Division

Box 142: 29th Infantry Division Photographs WWII

Box 143: Randolph Millholland WWII Scrapbook, 115th Infantry

Box 144: 29th Infantry Division, Biographical Information on Personnel Box 5

Box 145: History of the Theater Provost Marshal, December 1943 – May 1945, Major General Milton Reckord, Theater Provost Marshal

Box 146: Maryland WWI, Service Records, Scans

Box 147: 117th Trench Mortar Battery, 42nd (Rainbow) Division 1917 – 1919, Newspaper Clippings


The Enterprise (Mercedes, Tex.), Vol. 29, No. 28, Ed. 1 Friday, June 19, 1942

Weekly newspaper from Mercedes, Texas that includes local, state, and national news along with advertising.

Physical Description

eight pages : ill. page 23 x 16 in. Scanned from physical pages.

Creation Information

Context

This newspaper is part of the collection entitled: Mercedes Area Newspapers and was provided by the Dr. Hector P. Garcia Memorial Library to The Portal to Texas History, a digital repository hosted by the UNT Libraries. It has been viewed 14 times. More information about this issue can be viewed below.

People and organizations associated with either the creation of this newspaper or its content.

Editor

Publisher

Audiences

Check out our Resources for Educators Site! We've identified this newspaper as a primary source within our collections. Researchers, educators, and students may find this issue useful in their work.

Provided By

Dr. Hector P. Garcia Memorial Library

The first library in the South Texas city of Mercedes was informally established in 1911, with a free public library opening in 1940 as a result of work from local civic groups. In 2010, the library was named for Dr. Hector P. Garcia, a prominent resident who is best known for founding the American GI Forum in 1948.


Mussolini’s Flight to Libya, June 29, 1942

Post by Patton42 » 15 Jan 2013, 15:35

Good morning, Can anyone share any details on Mussolini’s June 29th trip to North Africa. As you recall, he had flown to Libya and stayed at Berta under the belief that Rommel‘s Panzer Army was only days away from breaking through, and Mussolini thus planned to ride triumphantly through the streets of Cairo on a white charger. It was not to be. But what about the trip there? I believe there were 12 planes involved. What types? Where did they depart from? How was this knowledge kept from Allies, i.e. enigma encryption decoding? Never heard if Allies caught a whiff that the Duce would be crossing the Mediterranean. Any info appreciated.

Re: Mussolini’s Flight to Libya, June 29, 1942

Post by nmao » 17 Jan 2013, 00:34

Sensing victory and dreaming of a march of conquerors down the boule-
vards of Cairo, Mussolini departed for Libya on 29 June. Two hundred drums of
black shoe polish were brought along to burnish the boots of the Italian soldiery
for the occasion [180]. Mussolini’s entourage took up twelve planeloads that in-
cluded his clerical staff and cook. His barber was unfortunately killed in a plane
crash [190]

189. John Bierman and Colin Smith, War without Hate: The Desert Campaign of 1940 1943 (New York: Penguin
Books, 2004, p. 200.
190. Paolo Monelli, Mussolini an intimate Life (London: Thomas and Hudson, 1953), pp. 9—10.

Tour scrive a Rommel, in data 28 giugno.
"Il signor Mussolini, all'alba parte da Roma per la Libia, dall'aeroporto di Guidonia con un seguito di 4 dozzine di persone. Egli è a bordo di un bombardiere armato, pilotato dal Colonnello Angelo Tondi. Il seguito prende posto su 4 S.81 disarmati. Alle ore 12 il convoglio aereo giunge all'aeroporto di Castel Benito, ove è il Comando degli Junkers.
Al seguito del duce sono il segretario di Stato per l'Aeronautica e un gruppo di giornalisti. Il Duce è in divisa coloniale (sahariana caki) con i gradi di (Primo) Maresciallo dell'Impero.
Il signor Mussolini si porta a Tripoli. La visita ha forma privata. Colazione alla residenza del Governatore della Libia, a Villa delle Rose, ove giunge il fonogramma di Rommel sulla caduta di Marsa Matruh. Sull'imbrunire il Duce raggiunge in volo l'aeroporto di El Fetejah, dove sono i caccia tedeschi. Attendono il Primo Ministro Italiano il Generale von Rintelen, il Generale Cavallero ed il Generale Bastico, con i rispettivi Stati Maggiori. Il secondo velivolo del seguito di Mussolini, durante l'atterraggio. si scontra, a causa dell'oscurità con un bombardiere italiano che rientra da un volo di guerra. I due apparecchi si fracassano al suolo: tre poliziotti del seguito del Duce rimangono uccisi, nonchè il "barbiere personale" di Mussolini.
Il Duce si ferma alla casa cantoniera di Ain Mara dopo Derna, ove è la sezione staccata del Comando italiano, per i compiti speciali in vista di una occupazione dell'Egitto e con funzioni di collegamento fra l'A. Korps ed il Comando Supremo italiano. Il capo della Sezione, Generale Curio Barbasetti di Prum, un ottimo e colto ufficiale, illustra agli ospiti la situazione militare sulle carte. Quindi il corteo si porta in macchina sul Gebel, al villaggio colonico Berta, ove è la residenza del Duce, in una villetta privata che era stata la sede del Generale inglese Claude Auchinlek con il suo Q.G."

In effetti Mussolini parte per la Cirenaica pilotando personalmente il suo aereo: si dice porti con sé un cavallo bianco che il Duce vorrebbe montare in occasione del suo ingresso al Cairo che egli ritiene questione di giorni se non addirittura di ore (Dichiara: “Entro 15 giorni vi installerò un Alto Commissario Italiano”).
A riceverlo è Rommel, che annota ogni giorno sul Diario.


  • Title: 10. Credit USAF, 1945. Original housed in the Muroc Flight Test Base, Unit History, 1 September 1942 30 June 1945. Alfred F. Simpson Historical Research Agency. United States Air Force. Maxwell AFB, Alabama. View of jet engine rotor balancing machine with engine rotor in place for balancing operations. Original caption reads "Balancing bucket wheel of jet engine, Muroc Flight Test Base, Oct. 1945" personnel not identified. Location where photograph was taken not determined, but presumed to be in shops of Building 4505. - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Hangar, End of North Base Road, Boron, Kern County, CA
  • Medium: 4 x 5 in.
  • Reproduction Number: HAER CAL,15-BORON.V,2S--10
  • Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on images made by the U.S. Government images copied from other sources may be restricted. (http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/res/114_habs.html)
  • Call Number: HAER CAL,15-BORON.V,2S--10
  • Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/pp.print
  • Place:
    • California -- Kern County -- Boron
    • Historic American Buildings Survey/Historic American Engineering Record/Historic American Landscapes Survey

    The Library of Congress generally does not own rights to material in its collections and, therefore, cannot grant or deny permission to publish or otherwise distribute the material. For further rights information, see "Rights Information" below and the Rights and Restrictions Information page ( http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/res/rights.html ).

    • Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on images made by the U.S. Government images copied from other sources may be restricted. http://www.loc.gov/rr/print/res/114_habs.html
    • Reproduction Number: HAER CAL,15-BORON.V,2S--10
    • Call Number: HAER CAL,15-BORON.V,2S--10
    • Medium: 4 x 5 in.

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      New York

      New York, one of the 13 original colonies, joined the Union in July 1788. However, the state did not choose electors in the first election due to an internal dispute. In the 1810 Census, New York became the nation’s most populous state, and had the most electoral votes from the 1812 election until the 1972 election, when it relinquished that distinction to California.

      Like many other Northeastern states, New York’s electoral clout has diminished in recent years. In each Census from 1950 through 2010, it lost at least two. In 2020, it lost one, although that almost didn't happen. Texas surpassed New York in electoral votes in 2004, and Florida did so after 2020. New York has been primarily a “blue” state ever since the Great Depression, only siding with a losing Republican when it chose its then-current governor Thomas E. Dewey over Harry S. Truman in 1948. It has voted Democratic in the last nine elections, six of those by a 20% margin. That includes 2020 as Joe Biden defeated Donald Trump by 23%.


      PARALYMPICS HISTORY

      Sport for athletes with an impairment has existed for more than 100 years, and the first sport clubs for the deaf were already in existence in 1888 in Berlin.

      It was not until after World War II however, that it was widely introduced. The purpose of it at that time was to assist the large number of war veterans and civilians who had been injured during wartime.

      In 1944, at the request of the British Government, Dr. Ludwig Guttmann opened a spinal injuries centre at the Stoke Mandeville Hospital in Great Britain, and in time, rehabilitation sport evolved to recreational sport and then to competitive sport.

      STOKE MANDEVILLE GAMES

      On 29 July 1948, the day of the Opening Ceremony of the London 1948 Olympic Games, Dr. Guttmann organised the first competition for wheelchair athletes which he named the Stoke Mandeville Games, a milestone in Paralympic history. They involved 16 injured servicemen and women who took part in archery.

      In 1952, Dutch ex-servicemen joined the Movement and the International Stoke Mandeville Games were founded.

      FIRST PARALYMPIC GAMES

      The Stoke Mandeville Games later became the Paralympic Games which first took place in Rome, Italy, in 1960 featuring 400 athletes from 23 countries. Since then they have taken place every four years.

      In 1976 the first Winter Games in Paralympics history were held in Sweden, and as with the Summer Games, have taken place every four years, and include a Paralympics Opening Ceremony and Paralympics Closing Ceremony.

      Since the Summer Games of Seoul, Korea in 1988 and the Winter Games in Albertville, France in 1992 the Games have also taken part in the same cities and venues as the Olympics due to an agreement between the IPC and IOC.

      GROWTH OF THE PARALYMPIC FAMILY

      Also in 1960, under the aegis of the World Federation of ex-servicemen, an International Working Group on Sport for the Disabled was set up to study the problems of sport for persons with an impairment. It resulted in the creation, in 1964, of the International Sport Organisation for the Disabled (ISOD) who offered opportunities for those athletes who could not affiliate to the International Stoke Mandeville Games: vision impaired, amputees, persons with cerebral palsy and paraplegics.

      At the start, 16 countries were affiliated to ISOD and the organisation pushed very hard to include blind and amputee athletes into the Toronto 1976 Paralympics and athletes with cerebral palsy in 1980 in Arnhem. Its aim was to embrace all impairments in the future and to act as a Co-coordinating Committee. Nevertheless, other disability-orientated international organisations such as the Cerebral Palsy International Sports and Recreation Association (CPISRA) and International Blind Sports Federation (IBSA) were founded in 1978 and 1980.

      The four international organisations experienced the need of co-ordinating the Games so they created the "International Co-coordinating Committee Sports for the Disabled in the World" (ICC) in 1982.

      The ICC was originally composed of the four presidents of CPISRA, IBSA, ISMGF and ISOD, the general secretaries and one additional member (in the beginning it was the Vice-President, and later on the Technical Officer).

      The International Committee of Sport for the Deaf (CISS) and International Sports Federations for Persons with an Intellectual Disability (INAS-FID) joined in 1986, but the deaf still maintained their own organisation. However, the member nations demanded more national and regional representation in the organisation.

      INTERNATIONAL PARALYMPIC COMMITTEE IS BORN

      Finally, on 22 September 1989, the International Paralympic Committee was founded as an international non-profit organisation in Dusseldorf, Germany, to act as the global governing body of the Paralympic Movement.

      The word “Paralympic” derives from the Greek preposition “para” (beside or alongside) and the word “Olympic”.

      Its meaning is that Paralympics are the parallel Games to the Olympics and illustrates how the two movements exist side-by-side.


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      Watch the video: План ОСТ: что, если бы нацисты победили? Альтернативный исход Великой Отечественной войны (July 2022).


Comments:

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