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9 Things You Should Know About the Wars of the Roses

9 Things You Should Know About the Wars of the Roses


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1. The Yorks and Lancasters were descended from the same family.
The Houses of York and Lancaster both traced their lineage to the sons of Edward III of the House of Plantagenet, who ruled as England’s king from 1327 until 1377. The Yorks were descended from the female relatives of Edward’s second and fourth sons, while the Lancasters were related to Edward’s third son, John of Gaunt. This complicated family tree ensured that both factions had a legitimate case for their royal lineage, though by modern standards the Yorkists’ claim was undoubtedly stronger. Nevertheless, when the Wars of the Roses first kicked off, the Lancasters had been entrenched on the throne since 1399, when Henry IV usurped power from his cousin Richard II.

2. Fallout from the Hundred Years’ War helped spark the unrest.
The Wars of the Roses might never have happened if not for the tenuous state of English politics in the 1450s. The realm was still reeling from its recent defeat in the last phase of the Hundred Years’ War with France, which had drained royal coffers, fractured the nobility and sent legions of unemployed soldiers flooding into the countryside. The sorry state of affairs was compounded by the weak and witless reign of the Lancasterian King Henry VI, who suffered from a mental illness that often rendered him nearly catatonic. Richard, Duke of York was made protector of the realm during one of Henry VI’s spells, and was reluctant to step down even after the King had recovered. The conniving and jockeying for power that ensued eventually led to 1455’s First Battle of St. Albans, the first armed confrontation between York and Lancaster-aligned armies.

3. Neither side used a rose as its sole symbol.
The Wars of the Roses take their name from the color of the roses—red for Lancaster and white for York—that each house supposedly used as their emblem. This legend took root after William Shakespeare and others wrote about it, but most modern historians maintain that neither side was identified solely by a floral symbol. The white rose was just one of many badges used by the Yorks, and the red rose of Lancaster was likely not adopted until the 1480s, when the conflict was nearly over. The name “Wars of the Roses,” meanwhile, wasn’t coined until the 19th century.

4. Queen Margaret of Anjou was the Lancasters’ most skilled strategist.
Although the Lancasters were nominally aligned behind King Henry VI, his ill health ensured that he was never a major player in the Wars of the Roses. The de facto leader of the Lancaster faction was instead his beautiful and cunning queen, Margaret of Anjou. Margaret masterminded many of the Lancasters’ alliances, and was responsible for raising an army that killed Richard of York and freed Henry VI from capture. She was later forced into exile in France after the Lancasters were ousted from power, but continued plotting and eventually helped orchestrate a 1470 invasion of England that briefly restored her husband to the throne. As brutal as she was brilliant, Queen Margaret showed little mercy to her rivals, most of whom she considered traitors. In one famous episode, she even allowed her 7-year-old son to choose the method of execution for two captured Yorkists, and complied when the boy decreed that they should “have their heads taken off.”

5. Both sides gained and lost power multiple times.
The Wars of the Roses saw the Yorks and Lancasters play musical chairs with the English throne. Richard, Duke of York nearly unseated the Lancastrian King Henry VI in 1460, only to be killed in battle a few months later. York’s son Edward IV, meanwhile, crushed the Lancasters in battle and claimed the throne before being briefly deposed in 1470. He quickly won back his kingship and ruled for several years of relative peace, but his sudden death in 1483 launched yet another period of infighting that saw his heirs murdered and the Yorkist Richard III and the Lancastrian Henry Tudor both elbow their way into power. In total, the Wars resulted in five different rulers in the span of only 25 years, three of whom were killed or executed by their rivals.

6. The Wars included one of the bloodiest battles ever fought on English soil.
Despite dragging on more than 30 years, the Wars of the Roses only amounted to a few months of actual fighting and less than 20 significant battles. The most gruesome of these came in March 1461, when the Yorkist forces of Edward IV met Margaret of Anjou’s Lancastrians near the village of Towton. The ensuing battle, fought amidst a blinding snowstorm, may have involved as many as 80,000 men. The two sides began by exchanging punishing volleys of arrows before clashing in fierce hand-to-hand combat. The fighting went on for 10 exhausting hours—contemporary chroniclers claimed a nearby river ran red with blood—but the Yorkists eventually routed the Lancastrians, allowing Edward IV to tighten his grip on the throne. While estimates of casualties at the Battle of Towton vary, it may have claimed as many as 40,000 lives—more than in any battle ever fought in Britain.

7. Many key figures switched allegiances over the course of the conflict.
Double-crossing was rampant during the Wars of the Roses, and many key battles turned on acts of treachery. The most extraordinary defection came in 1470, courtesy of the Earl of Warwick, a popular nobleman and power broker nicknamed the “Kingmaker.” Warwick was originally a staunch supporter of Richard, Duke of York, and had helped propel the Duke’s son Edward IV to the throne. But after the King and the “Kingmaker” had a falling out, Warwick joined Edward’s brother, the Duke of Clarence, in leading a rebellion against him. The coup failed, so Warwick and Clarence fled to France, where they partnered with their former archenemy, the exiled Lancastrian Queen Margaret of Anjou. These unlikely allies managed to briefly unseat King Edward during an invasion of England, but their triumph turned to defeat after Clarence defected back to the Yorkists and Warwick died in battle. Margaret of Anjou was later captured and Henry VI and his son were killed, leaving the House of Lancaster in ruins.

8. The Wars led to one of the most perplexing disappearances in British history.
After the Yorkist King Edward IV died in 1483, the crown passed to his eldest son, Edward V. Since Edward was only 12 years old, his uncle Richard, Duke of Gloucester was made protector of the realm until he came of age. Edward and his younger brother Richard of Shrewsbury were sent to live in the Tower of London, but they turned from honored guests into prisoners after their uncle and his allies invalidated their deceased father’s marriage and declared them illegitimate. The Duke usurped the throne and was crowned King Richard III shortly thereafter, and the two “Princes in the Tower” vanished without a trace. The skeletons of a pair of children were later found underneath one of the Tower’s staircases in 1674, leading many historians to conclude that Richard III had the boys killed. The remains have never been authenticated, however, and the Princes’ true fate remains a mystery.

9. The Wars reached their climax at 1485’s Battle of Bosworth Field.
Richard III’s power grab alienated his Yorkist allies, some of whom eventually flocked to the banner of Henry Tudor, an exiled nobleman and distant relative of the Lancasters who had made a claim to throne. Tudor landed in England in 1485 and rallied his supporters, and on August 22, he confronted Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field. The clash ended in a decisive Tudor victory, and Richard III was killed during the fighting by a vicious blow to the head. Tudor was immediately crowned King Henry VII, launching a new Tudor Dynasty that flourished until the early 17th century. He went on to unite the Yorks and Lancasters once and for all by marrying Elizabeth of York, Edward the IV’s daughter. To symbolize the end of the Wars of the Roses, he also adopted a new “Tudor rose” emblem that incorporated both the white rose of the Yorks and the red of the Lancasters.


9 Things To Know About The Unfolding Crisis In Ethiopia's Tigray Region

Women mourn the victims of a massacre allegedly perpetrated by Eritrean soldiers in the village of Dengelat, north of Mekele, the capital of Tigray.

Eduardo Soteras/AFP via Getty Images

For months, a conflict in Ethiopia between the government in Addis Ababa and a defiant region has cost thousands of lives and displaced at least a million people.

Despite the increasing brutality in Tigray, until now, it has been largely overlooked by the outside world. But attention and concern is growing with news of alleged atrocities and a worsening refugee crisis.

We've put together nine things you should know about the situation in the Horn of Africa.

Where is Tigray and what is going on there?

Tigray is Ethiopia's northernmost region. Bordering Eritrea, it is home to most of the country's estimated 7 million ethnic Tigrayans. The ethnic group, which accounts for about 6% of Ethiopia's population, have had an outsized influence in national affairs.

A map showing Ethiopia's Tigray region, highlighting key cities. Associated Press hide caption

A map showing Ethiopia's Tigray region, highlighting key cities.

In early November, the regional government — controlled by the Tigray People's Liberation Front, a leftist political party — launched a full-scale siege of a key Ethiopian military base at Sero, using tanks, heavy guns and mortars.

Calling the TPLF assault a "treason that will never be forgotten," Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed ordered a federal offensive against the region, setting off the conflict.

A damaged tank stands on a road north of Mekelle, the capital of Tigray, last month. Eduardo Soteras/AFP via Getty Images hide caption

A damaged tank stands on a road north of Mekelle, the capital of Tigray, last month.

Eduardo Soteras/AFP via Getty Images

How bad is the humanitarian crisis?

Bad. But the scope of the problem is still unclear. The United Nations says the humanitarian community has been largely unable to get outside the major cities, such as the regional capital of Mekele, to see what's happening in the countryside.

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Ethiopia, U.N. Reach Deal To Allow 'Unimpeded' Access For Aid Groups In Tigray

So far, the conflict has killed thousands of people, many of whom allegedly died as a result of indiscriminate shelling of cities in Tigray by Ethiopian forces. A local official told Reuters in January that more than two million people have been displaced by fighting, far exceeding previous estimates. The conflict also threatens a regional humanitarian disaster.

In January, the U.N. refugee agency said some 56,000 people had fled the fighting in Tigray, many of whom have ended up in neighboring Sudan.

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'I Have Lost Everything': Ethiopian Refugees Flee For Their Lives

Last month, The New York Times published a story citing an internal U.S. government report that described a systematic campaign of ethnic cleansing in Tigray.

Fighters supporting Addis Ababa's side in the conflict were "deliberately and efficiently rendering Western Tigray ethnically homogeneous through the organized use of force and intimidation," the Times quoted from the report, which also said that, "Whole villages were severely damaged or completely erased."

Tigrayan men sit atop a hill in Ethiopia overlooking part of the Umm Rakouba refugee camp in neighboring Sudan, where many people who fled the ongoing conflict have gone for refuge. Nariman El-Mofty/AP hide caption

Tigrayan men sit atop a hill in Ethiopia overlooking part of the Umm Rakouba refugee camp in neighboring Sudan, where many people who fled the ongoing conflict have gone for refuge.

What is the Tigray People's Liberation Front?

The TPLF originally formed in the 1970s to push for Tigrayan self-determination, a goal it later moved away from. In a remarkable twist, it eventually found itself at the center of national politics. It became the dominant player in a coalition of ethnic political parties known as the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front, or EPRDF, which led Ethiopia's government for nearly three decades.

Abiy came to power in 2018 as the head of the EPRDF. But a year later, he dissolved the party, saying he hoped to put its history of ethnic divisiveness behind it. Instead, Abiy sought to fold the EPRDF's constituents into a new political party. But the TPLF refused to go along, instead retreating to its power base in Tigray, where it enjoys widespread support.

What led up to the current conflict?

After it was sidelined at the national level, the TPLF was accused by Abiy's government of seeking to destabilize Ethiopia by orchestrating ethnic violence across the country.

Abiy had promised to hold the country's first truly democratic elections last summer. However, citing the COVID-19 pandemic, he postponed them.

The TPLF said that delaying the vote amounted to an unconstitutional extension of Abiy's presidential term. The group then held its own regional elections anyway, claiming a decisive win. Abiy's government subsequently declared the Tigray elections invalid.

The two sides called each other illegitimate in the lead-up to the TPLF attack on the Sero base. In response, the government sent the Ethiopian National Defense Forces, backed by soldiers from the Amhara region, which borders Tigray.

Who has the upper hand in the fighting?

After fighting commenced in November, the Ethiopian National Defense Forces quickly captured many of Tigray's main cities, including the regional capital, Mekele, with approximately a half-million people. Abiy declared the main phase of the conflict over however, the TPLF still controls large swaths of Tigray. Ethiopia has said it is waging a "final offensive" against the group.

What role has Eritrea played?

Eritrea, which was once part of Ethiopia, fought and won a brutal, decades-long war of independence that ended in 1991. The two countries went to war again in 1998 in a territorial conflict that ended inconclusively in 2000, claiming an estimated 100,000 lives.

However, shortly after taking office, Abiy reached out to Eritrean President Isaias Afwerki, and the two forged a historic peace accord aimed at putting the countries' mutual enmity in the past. Abiy won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2019 for his efforts to resolve the long-standing conflict.

Ethiopia's Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed (right) welcomes Eritrea's President Isaias Afwerki upon his arrival at the airport in Gondar, for a visit in Ethiopia, in November 2018. Eduardo Soteras/AFP via Getty Images hide caption

Ethiopia's Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed (right) welcomes Eritrea's President Isaias Afwerki upon his arrival at the airport in Gondar, for a visit in Ethiopia, in November 2018.

Eduardo Soteras/AFP via Getty Images

Abiy appears to have won a staunch ally in Isaias. Eritrean forces are reportedly engaged in the Tigray fight, backing Ethiopia. The Associated Press reported that Eritrean soldiers were involved in a massacre of civilians in the town of Axum in the early days of the conflict. Amnesty International has also blamed Eritrea for the mass killing at Axum. Eritrean forces also reportedly carried out a similar attack on civilians at a church in the Tigrayan town of Dengelat.

Both governments have denied that Eritrean troops are even in Ethiopia. In an interview with state media last month, Isaias didn't comment on the presence of Eritrean forces in Tigray, but he appeared to hint at it. He expressed concern over the Tigray situation and said Eritrea was "trying our level best" to help Ethiopia "in accordance to our obligation," the BBC reported.

Abiy, speaking to parliament in November, called the Eritrean people "our brothers," and friends "who stood by our side on a tough day."

What does the U.N. say?

The U.N. High Commissioner for Human Rights, Michelle Bachelet, has asked Ethiopia for access to Tigray to investigate possible war crimes there, after reports of extrajudicial killings and sexual violence.

Bachelet says her office has verified some atrocities in Tigray, including ones committed by Eritrean forces, as well as the "indiscriminate shelling in Mekele, Humera and Adigrat towns in Tigray region."

What has the U.S. said?

The Biden administration describes the situation in Tigray as "a deepening humanitarian crisis."

Secretary of State Antony Blinken, citing "credible reports" of human rights abuses, has pressed Addis Ababa to end the conflict, State Department spokesperson Ned Price said.

"The secretary urged the Ethiopian government to take immediate, concrete steps to protect civilians, including refugees, and to prevent further violence," he said in a statement.

The Biden administration has repeatedly called for the immediate withdrawal of Eritrean soldiers and Amhara regional forces. It has also asked for the African Union to help resolve the crisis.

Echoing comments made by Blinken, Linda Thomas-Greenfield, the U.S. ambassador to the U.N., said "The onus to prevent further atrocities and human suffering falls squarely on the Ethiopian government shoulders."

"We urge the Ethiopian government to support an immediate end to the fighting in Tigray," she said. "To that end, the prompt withdrawal of Eritrean forces and Amhara regional forces from Tigray are essential steps, and we urge the broader region to work fast and together toward a peaceful solution."

An Ethiopian child is seen at Um Rakuba refugee camp in February as those fleeing the conflict in Tigray continue to live under harsh conditions. Anadolu Agency/Anadolu Agency via Getty Images hide caption

An Ethiopian child is seen at Um Rakuba refugee camp in February as those fleeing the conflict in Tigray continue to live under harsh conditions.

Anadolu Agency/Anadolu Agency via Getty Images

What is at stake in the conflict?

With the apparent involvement of Eritrea, and a flood of refugees into Sudan, the situation threatens to become both a wider conflict and a deepening humanitarian crisis in a part of the world that has seen more than its share of human misery in recent decades.

For Abiy, the Nobel laureate, and Eritrea's Isaias, their reputations as peacemakers have taken a severe hit. Allegations of atrocities and possible war crimes could effectively end whatever international good will they enjoyed.

Meanwhile, for President Biden, the conflict could prove a difficult balancing act.


Beginning of American Involvement in Vietnam

America began sending aid to the French fighting in Vietnam and the rest of Indochina in the late 1940s. France was fighting Communist rebels led by Ho Chi Minh. It wasn't until Ho Chi Minh defeated the French in 1954 that America became officially involved in trying to defeat the Communists in Vietnam. This began with financial aid and military advisors sent to help the South Vietnamese as they fought Northern Communists fighting in the South. The U.S. worked with Ngo Dinh Diem and other leaders to set up a separate government in the South.


Satan and demons are powerful spirits, but they are not omnipresent, omniscient, or omnipotent. Regarding omnipresence—demons can leave a man and enter pigs (Mark 5:13). Regarding omniscience—angels, and we can safely surmise fallen angels also, do not know the day and hour of the return of the Son of Man (Matthew 24:36). Regarding omnipotence—no angel, ruler or power can separate the believer from the love of Christ (Rom. 8:38). In some Christian circles, devilish power, knowledge, and presence are inflated.

It has been said that the world says to us, Conform to me!, the flesh says to us, Satisfy me!, and the devil says to us, Worship me! There is biblical evidence to support each of these. Respecting the last idea of the three, the devil’s tempting of Jesus in the wilderness climaxes with this invitation (Matthew 4:8–9): “Again, the devil took him to a very high mountain and showed him all the kingdoms of the world and their glory. And he said to him, “All these I will give you, if you will fall down and worship me.” This appears to be the devil’s ultimate motivation: the desire to be worshipped. But to do so is idolatry. It is worshipping the creature rather than the creator (Rom. 1:24–25).


KS3 History Quizzes

(Fun KS3 History revision quizzes to teach students in Year 7, Year 8, and Year 9)

There are many adjectives we could use to describe History. Captivating. Shocking. Powerful. But perhaps we are better off describing the benefits of studying History in KS3, and at any stage of education.

You see, young grasshoppers, with a complex and thorough understanding of History, your knowledge will have roots.

Everything you learn in school about people and inventions and the ways of the world - it will all be clearer when you understand what came before it.

History is a big deal. It encompasses all of human knowledge up until this point. Everything we build on today, everything we innovate and every new story we have to tell is adding to a vast and intricate story of human existence. Want to know something else? You never stop learning about History. In the coming years, you’ll see news broadcasts and read articles and watch as the story of this generation unravels.

See? We told you it’s captivating.

The big question is, where do you start? As you progress through KS3, you’ll realise History is a large topic with many different avenues. That’s why we break it all down into easy-to-consume quizzes, ready and waiting to feed you with History knowledge. When you start learning with our quizzes, you can enjoy the satisfaction that comes from being a History Whizz Kid.

Want to know what you’ll be covering?

Our quizzes cover so many topics. From the Cold War and the abolition of slavery to the industrial revolution and the women’s vote, you can be sure that our quizzes will equip you with all the key knowledge from the National Curriculum.

Prepare to delve into the past and uncover some of the most shocking, amazing and inspiring stories.

History unravels a little more each day. The time to start is now.

Discover all there is to know about KS3 by taking time out to read Key Stage 3 Curriculum.


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The History of Roses

Roses have a long and colorful history. They have been symbols of love, beauty, war, and politics. The rose is, according to fossil evidence, 35 million years old. In nature, the genus Rosa has some 150 species spread throughout the Northern Hemisphere, from Alaska to Mexico and including northern Africa. Garden cultivation of roses began some 5,000 years ago, probably in China. During the Roman period, roses were grown extensively in the Middle East. They were used as confetti at celebrations, for medicinal purposes, and as a source of perfume. Roman nobility established large public rose gardens in the south of Rome. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the popularity of roses seemed to rise and fall depending on gardening trends of the time.

During the fifteenth century, the rose was used as a symbol for the factions fighting to control England. The white rose symbolized York, and the red rose symbolized Lancaster, as a result, the conflict became known as the "War of the Roses."

Roses were in such high demand during the seventeenth century that royalty considered roses or rose water as legal tender, and they were often used as barter and for payments. Napoleon's wife Josephine established an extensive collection of roses at Chateau de Malmaison, an estate seven miles west of Paris in the 1800s. This garden became the setting for Pierre Joseph Redoute's work as a botanical illustrator. In 1824, he completed his watercolor collection "Les Rose," which is still considered one of the finest records of botanical illustration.

It wasn't until the late eighteenth century that cultivated roses were introduced into Europe from China. Most modern-day roses can be traced back to this ancestry. These introductions were repeat bloomers, making them unusual and of great interest to hybridizers, setting the stage for breeding work with native roses to select for hardiness and a long bloom season. Many of these early efforts by plant breeders are of great interest to today's gardeners.

Roses are once again enjoying a resurgence in popularity, specifically, shrub roses and old garden roses. Gardeners realize that these roses fit the lifestyle of today's gardeners who want roses that are not as demanding with regard to disease control, offer excellent floral quality, have excellent winter hardiness, and fit into shrub borders and perennial gardens without seeming out of place.

To be successful in growing roses in Midwest gardens, one needs to be aware of some basic considerations. Attention to plant selection, a basic knowledge of the wide array of classes available, basic culture information, and information about potential disease and insect problems will go a long way in making roses an enjoyable addition to the garden.

This short guide to rose gardening will hopefully help sort through some of the confusion about roses and entice you to include one or more of these plants in your garden.


5 Things You Need To Know About The First World War

Over 30 nations declared war between 1914 and 1918. The majority joined on the side of the Allies, including Serbia, Russia, France, Britain, Italy and the United States. They were opposed by Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire, who together formed the Central Powers. What began as a relatively small conflict in southeast Europe became a war between European empires. Britain and its Empire’s entry into the war made this a truly global conflict fought on a geographical scale never seen before. Fighting occurred not only on the Western Front, but in eastern and southeast Europe, Africa and the Middle East.

The First World War was not inevitable or accidental, but began as a result of human actions and decisions.

Over 65 million men volunteered or were conscripted to fight in mass citizen armies. Millions of civilians also contributed to the war effort by working in industry, agriculture or jobs left open when men enlisted. Victory depended on popular support. Some nations were forced to surrender as their people, pushed to their physical and emotional limits, lost the will to continue fighting. The First World War was also a war against people. Invading armies committed atrocities against civilians in the areas they occupied. Attacks on civilians became increasingly common as each nation tried to break their opponents’ home morale and diminish popular support for the war. Propaganda demonised entire nations and attacked the ‘national characters’ of enemy peoples.

National resources were mobilised as each combatant nation raced to supply its armed forces with enough men and equipment.

In Britain, early failures in munitions manufacturing led to full government intervention in war production. These controls helped its industry produce nearly 4 million rifles, 250,000 machine guns, 52,000 aeroplanes, 2,800 tanks, 25,000 artillery pieces and over 170 million rounds of artillery shells by 1918.

Advances in weaponry and military technology provoked tactical changes as each side tried to gain an advantage over the other. The introduction of aircraft into war left soldiers and civilians vulnerable to attacks from above for the first time.

Major innovations were also made in manufacturing, chemistry and communications. Medical advances made the First World War the first major conflict in which British deaths in battle outnumbered deaths caused by disease.


Jesús Malverde

Jesús Juárez Mazo, venerated as Jesús Malverde, is the patron saint of Mexico’s narcos (drug smugglers) even though his original story has nothing to do with drug trafficking. He was born in 1870 in Sinaloa and is said to have been a kind of Mexican Robin Hood, robbing the rich to give to the poor. He was said to have been executed in 1909 and the first altar dedicated to him was constructed in Culiacán in 1969. Since then he has become the saint of thieves and criminals, who pray to him to intercede on their behalf with the big guy.


Seven Things You Should Know About Southern Comfort

Born in the Big Easy, and a favorite of rock royalty like Janis Joplin, Southern Comfort is a spirit that wears many hats (and, in one notable instance, a lynx fur coat).

If your only exposure to “SoCo” is an ill-conceived shot you sort of remember taking one time, it’s time to give the spirit a closer look. From humble beginnings to WWII-era patriotism, Southern Comfort has a storied history. Here are seven things you should know about the famous southern liqueur.

Southern Comfort is not a whiskey.

Though it invariably appears on liquor store shelves next to Jim Beam and Jack Daniels, Southern Comfort isn’t actually a whiskey. Invented in 1874 by New Orleans bartender Martin Wilkes Heron, the original spirit blended fruits and spices with low-quality whiskey to add sweetness and smoothness. Today, as a result of these infusions, Southern Comfort is technically classed as a liqueur.

For many years SoCo didn’t even contain whiskey.

The brand changed hands multiple times after Heron died in 1920 (three months after the start of Prohibition, no less). For much of this time, the liqueur’s whiskey base was replaced with cheaper, neutral grain spirit, such as vodka. It wasn’t until Sazerac bought the brand in 2016 that production started using a whiskey base again.

Its tagline is slightly misleading.

When creator Heron patented his drink in 1889, he labeled bottles with the tagline “None Genuine But Mine.” The brand continued to use the line for more than 70 years, even after changing one of its “genuine” core ingredients, whiskey.

Before SoCo there was CuBu.

Heron originally named his liqueur Cuffs & Buttons. Depending on which version of history you believe, this was either a reference to the ingredients he used for the infusion — citrus peel (cuffs) and cloves (buttons) — or a nod to another popular liqueur of the time, Hat and Tails.

Southern Comfort arrived in Europe aboard U.S. bombers.

Homesick World War II pilot Colonel Thomas J. Barr named his B-17G bomber Southern Comfort in honor of his favorite liqueur. Barr and his crew even painted the name on their plane, hoping the company might send them a few free bottles. He had to wait more than 60 years. In 2015, the brand finally presented Barr with a case of special-label Southern Comfort during a ceremony recognizing his war efforts.

SoCo released numerous (questionable) infusions.

With dwindling popularity, in 2011, Southern Comfort turned to flavored releases. From fruity infusions like Cherry and Lime, to dessert mixes like Caramel and Gingerbread spice, there were numerous infusions over a five-year period. None of them, however, were more ill-conceived than Fiery Pepper, a blend of the sweet liqueur and Tabasco. Thankfully, Sazerac dropped the flavored releases when it purchased the brand in 2016.

Southern Comfort, designer to the stars.

Janis Joplin was famously a fan of Southern Comfort and regularly appeared on stage with a bottle in hand. To thank her for the free publicity, Southern Comfort bought Joplin a lynx fur coat and matching hat.


Watch the video: 9 Πράγματα που ίσως δεν γνωρίζατε για τον Καφέ (May 2022).


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