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Thornycroft Water Tube Boiler, Paul Jones Class Destroyers
This picture shows one of the Thornycroft water tube boilers built for the Paul Jones class destroyers. Similar boilers were fitting in a number of other warships, both US and Royal Navy.
Naval/Maritime History 22nd of June - Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
HMS Daring was a 12 gun-brig of the Royal Navy which became part of the Experimental Squadrons of both 1844 and 1845, and later served in the West Indies. She was sold in 1864.
The Experimental Brigs. H.M. Brig Daring, 12 guns. Constructed by Mr Joseph White. (Shows H.M.S. Pantaloon, Espiegle, Cruizer and Osprey) (PAH0926)
Daring was designed by Mr. Thomas White of Cowes and built in Portsmouth Dockyard. She was launched on 2 April 1844 and commissioned on 22 October the same year.
The Experimental Squadron of 1844
From September 1844 until February 1847, she was commanded by Commander Henry James Matson, an outspoken abolitionist and hero of the Preventative Squadron. She was employed on the Home Station, where she formed part of the 1844 Experimental Brig Squadron. The Times stated:
|“||We stated last week that the Daring entered her complement, and could have entered many more on the day she hoisted her pendant. This has been seized upon (as we expected it would be), as corroboratory of the statements made in certain daily and weekly "sources of information" upon the present efficient state of our naval force. It is, in fact, however, corroborative of no such allegation, but merely proves this, that the Daring and Waterwitch, being the first of the squadron commissioned, had a rush made to enter for them, and the former having a very excellent commander and a very "winning" look, was manned, and to spare, before her sister had half her complement on her books, and before the other vessel of the squadron had entered a single hand.||”|
|— The Times, 23 September 1844|
She appeared to be a good sailer the report of the comparative sailing qualities of the vessels making up the Experimental Brig Squadron reads:
|“||In the trial No. l, with the water smooth and a long swell, the Flying Fish had the greatest advantage the Osprey and Daring slightly differing from each other, coming next but in the trial No. 7, when the wind was similar, but where instead of smooth water there was a cross head sea, the Daring was the most weatherly, the Flying Fish and Espieglecoming after her, being followed, but at some distance, by the Mutine and Osprey. From the results of these two trials with the same weather, but with the sea coming in a different direction, it may safely be deduced that the Daring with a head sea is the superior vessel and this is really remarkably confirmed by examining the details of the trial No. 7, where it appears that for three hours, when on the tack, with a following sea, there was comparatively but little difference between the Flying Fish, Espiegle, and Daring but that afterwards, when the signal to tack had been made, and they were brought to bow the sea, the advantage was chiefly gained, which in two hours gave the Daring so great a superiority over the other two.||”|
|— Capatin Corry RN, To the Secretary of the Admiralty, 9 December 1844|
The Experimental Squadron of 1845
Daring joined the two-deckers Albion, Vanguard, Superb, Rodney and Canopus on the third cruise of the 1845 Experimental Squadron, the only brig to do so. They were joined on 21 October by the wooden steam sloop HMS Rattler. The Times reported that Daring could often not keep up with the larger ships:
|“||The Daring brig, 12, is, from her small tonnage and canvass, always left behind, except when on a wind under storm stay sails, in which case she drifts less, and is consequently ahead.||”|
|— The Times, London, 13 October 1845|
Service on the North America and West Indies Station
From 1846 Daring served on the North America and West Indies Station. On 10 June 1846 she captured the Spanish slave schooners Rauret and Numa off Guano Point. The Mixed Court of Justice at the Havana found in favour of the owners and sentenced the ships to be restored to their masters on 15 July 1846.
The Wreck of USS Somers
Loss of USS Somers off Vera Cruz
The United States government awarded medals to thirty-nine officers and crew of Daring, Endymion and Alarm in recognition of saving several officers and crew of the United States brig Somers in the harbour of Vera Cruz on 10 December 1846.
Daring apparently served the rest of her career on the North America and West Indies Station, returning to Britain at the end of each commission. Commander William Peel (a later winner of the VC and 3rd son of Sir Robert Peel, British Prime Minister) became her captain from February 1847 until October 1848. She refitted at Chatham in 1850 and from August 1852 was commanded by Commander Gerard John Napier. A memorial Inscription in the Port Royal Parish Church records that Lieutenant Smith, Midshipman Trevillian and 5 seamen of Daring were "drowned on June 23rd, 1853,- by the upsetting of one of her boats, - in the crossing of Tampico." She visited the Turks and Caicos Islands in 1855, and is recorded on a 20c stamp issued by the islands in August 1973.
She was sold out of the service to Castle and Beech on 7 October 1864 and broken up at Charlton in March 1865. Her figurehead, a contemporary sailor staring straight ahead, is on display at the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich.
Scale: 1:48. A contemporary half block model of HMS Daring(1844), a 12 gun brig. The hull is carved from a solid block of wood(?) and painted a bronze colour below the waterline with black topsides above separated by a thin white line. Along the broadside are seven gunports let in and painted a light brown together with a cathead and channels. The clipper-shaped bow is fitted with headrails and a small half length bust figurehead, above which is mounted a stump bowsprit. The main deck is flush, fitted with two stump masts, and runs aft finishing with a small angled stern and quarter gallery with a rudder below fitted with gudgeons and pintles. The whole model is fitted on a rectangular wooden backboard which is painted a creamy white and surrounded by a stained moulded edging which is inscribed with "(3)" amidships below the keel. There is a detached plaque which is inscribed "200 Daring, 12 gun, 1844 scale 1/48 (1/4" to 1'). A brig built at Portsmouth, sold in 1865. Dimensions: - Gun deck 104ft Beam 31ft. 4 1/2 in".
Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
2 April 1863 - The USS Alligator, the fourth United States Navy ship of that name, is the first known U.S. Navy submarine, foundered
The USS Alligator, the fourth United States Navy ship of that name, is the first known U.S. Navy submarine, and was active during the American Civil War. The first American submarine, built during the Revolutionary War, was Turtle, which the civilian David Bushnell designed and built, and Sergeant Ezra Lee of the Continental Army operated.
Contemporary artist's rendering of Alligator
In the autumn of 1861, the Navy asked the firm of Neafie & Levy to construct a small submersible ship designed by the French engineer Brutus de Villeroi, who also acted as a supervisor during the first phase of the construction.
The ship was about 30 ft (9 m) long and 6 ft (1.8 m) or 8 ft (2.4 m) in diameter. "It was made of iron, with the upper part pierced for small circular plates of glass, for light, and in it were several water tight compartments." She was designed to carry eighteen men. For propulsion, she was equipped with sixteen hand-powered paddles protruding from the sides, but on 3 July 1862, the Washington Navy Yard had the paddles replaced by a hand-cranked propeller, which improved its speed to about four knots. Air was to be supplied from the surface by two tubes with floats, connected to an air pump inside the submarine, and was the first operational submarine to have an air purifying system.The ship had a forward airlock, and was the first operational submarine with the capability for a diver to leave and return to the vessel while both remained submerged. Divers could affix mines to a target, then return and detonate them by connecting the mine's insulated copper wire to a battery inside the vessel.
The Navy wanted such a vessel to counter the threat posed to its wooden-hulled blockaders by the former screw frigate Merrimack which, according to intelligence reports, the Norfolk Navy Yard was rebuilding as an ironclad ram for the Confederacy (the CSS Virginia). The Navy's agreement with the Philadelphia shipbuilder specified that the submarine was to be finished in not more than 40 days its keel was laid down almost immediately following the signing on 1 November 1861 of the contract for her construction. Nevertheless, the work proceeded so slowly that more than 180 days had elapsed when the novel craft finally was launched on 1 May 1862.
Samuel Eakins, first commander of Alligator
Soon after her launching, she was towed to the Philadelphia Navy Yard to be fitted out and manned. A fortnight later, she was placed under command of a civilian, Mr. Samuel Eakins. On 13 June, the Navy formally accepted this boat.
Next, the steam tug Fred Kopp was engaged to tow the submarine to Hampton Roads, Virginia. The two vessels got underway on 19 June and proceeded down the Delaware River to the Delaware and Chesapeake Canal through which they entered the Chesapeake Bay for the last leg of the voyage, reaching Hampton Roads on the 23rd. At Norfolk, the submarine was moored alongside the sidewheel steamer Satellite which was to act as her tender during her service with the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron. A spring 1862 newspaper report called the vessel Alligator, in part because of its green color, a moniker which soon appeared in official correspondence.
Several tasks were considered for the vessel: destroying a bridge across Swift Creek, a tributary of the Appomattox River clearing away the obstructions in the James River at Fort Darling which had prevented Union gunboats from steaming upstream to support General McClellan's drive up the peninsula toward Richmond and blowing up Virginia II if that ironclad were completed on time and sent downstream to attack Union forces. Consequently, the submarine was sent up the James to City Point where she arrived on the 25th. Commander John Rodgers, the senior naval officer in that area, examined Alligator and reported that neither the James off Fort Darling nor the Appomattox near the bridge was deep enough to permit the submarine to submerge completely. Moreover, he feared that while his theater of operation contained no targets accessible to the submarine, the Union gunboats under his command would be highly vulnerable to her attacks should Alligator fall into enemy hands. He therefore requested permission to send the submarine back to Hampton Roads.
The ship headed downriver on the 29th and then was ordered to proceed to the Washington Navy Yard for more experimentation and testing. In August, Lt. Thomas O. Selfridge, Jr.was given command of Alligator and she was assigned a naval crew. The tests proved unsatisfactory, and Selfridge pronounced "the enterprise… a failure."
The Navy Yard on 3 July 1862 replaced Alligator's oars with a hand cranked screw propeller, thereby increasing her speed to about 4 knots (7.4 km/h). On 18 March 1863, President Lincoln observed the submarine in operation.
About this time, Rear Admiral Samuel Francis du Pont—who had become interested in the submarine while in command of the Philadelphia Navy Yard early in the war—decided that Alligator might be useful in carrying out his plans to take Charleston, South Carolina, the birthplace of secession. Acting Master John F. Winchester, who then commanded the Sumpter, was ordered to tow the submarine to Port Royal, South Carolina. The pair got underway on 31 March.
The next day, the two ships encountered bad weather which, on 2 April, forced Sumpter to cut Alligator adrift off Cape Hatteras. She either immediately sank or drifted for a while before sinking, ending the career of the United States Navy's first submarine.
USS Alligator (1862) - Wikipedia
Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
2 April 1901 – Launch of Gauss, a ship built in Germany specially for polar exploration, named after the mathematician and physical scientist Carl Friedrich Gauss.
Gauss was a ship built in Germany specially for polar exploration, named after the mathematician and physical scientist Carl Friedrich Gauss. Purchased by Canada in 1904, the vessel was renamed CGS Arctic. As Arctic, the vessel made annual trips to the Canadian Arctic until 1925. The ship's fate is disputed among the sources, but all claim that by the mid-1920s, the vessel was out of service.
CGS Arctic at anchor at Pond Inlet in 1923
Postcard showing the construction of the Gauss ship
The ship was built by the Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft shipyard at Kiel at a cost of 500,000 marks. Launched on 2 April 1901 she was modelled on Fridtjof Nansen's ship Fram, and rigged as a barquentine. Displacing 1,442 long tons (1,465 t), Gauss had a tonnage of 762 gross register tons (GRT). The ship was 46 m (150 ft 11 in) long, 11 m (36 ft 1 in) in the beam, with a draught of 4.8 m (15 ft 9 in). With a 325 hp (242 kW) triple expansion steam engine driving one screw to augment the sails, she was capable of 7 knots (13 km/h 8.1 mph).
Classed "A1" by Germanischer Lloyds, she was designed to carry 700 tons of stores, enough to make her self-sufficient for up to three years with a crew of 30 aboard. The hull was exceptionally strong, and the rudder and propeller were designed to be hoisted aboard for inspection or repairs.
Aerial view of Gauss in the ice during the German Antarctic Expedition taken using a tethered balloon
Between 1901 and 1903 Gauss explored the Antarctic in the Gauss expedition under the leadership of Erich von Drygalski.
In early 1904 the ship was purchased by the Canadian government under the advice of Joseph-Elzéar Bernier, who had surveyed the ship before the acquisition. The ship was renamed Arctic and under the command of Bernier she explored the Arctic Archipelago. Bernier and Arctic made annual expeditions to Canada's north. On 1 July 1909, Bernier, without government approval, claimed the entire area between Canada's eastern and western borders all the way to the North Pole. Bernier only left the ship during the First World War, returning to command Arctic again from 1922–1925. The vessel's end is not agreed upon. According to schiffe-und-mehr.com, Arctic was abandoned in 1925 and left to rot at her moorings. Maginley and Collin claim the vessel was broken up in 1926 while the Miramar Ship Index say the ship was abandoned in 1927.
Gauss (ship) - Wikipedia
Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
2 April 1921 – Launch of SS Delphine, a yacht commissioned by Horace Dodge, co-founder of Dodge Brothers.
SS Delphine is a yacht commissioned by Horace Dodge, co-founder of Dodge Brothers. The yacht was launched on 2 April 1921, and spans 258 feet (79 m). Power was originally supplied from three Babcock & Wilcox boilers powering two 1,500-horsepower (1,100 kW) quadruple-expansion engines. In her 2003 refit Delphine was re-equipped with two modern water-tube boilers operating at 20 bars (290 psi), the larger of which has an evaporation capacity of 14 metric tons (31,000 lb) of steam per hour while the smaller can evaporate 4 metric tons (8,800 lb) per hour these new boilers supply the original quadruple-expansion engines. "Of all the large American-built steam yachts built between 1893 and 1930, the Delphine is the only one left in her original condition with her original steam engines still in service."
SS Delphine launched April 1921. Caption from Popular Mechanics magazine.
The Delphine caught fire and sank in New York in 1926, to be recovered and restored. She suffered further damage in 1940 when she ran aground in the Great Lakes, and was repaired. She was acquired by the United States Navy in January 1942 and rechristened USS Dauntless (PG-61), to serve as the flagship for Admiral Ernest King, Commander in Chief of the U.S. Fleet and Chief of Naval Operations. She was sold back to Anna Dodge (Horace Dodge's wife) after the conclusion of World War II and restored to civilian standards and service, including her original name.
Delphine changed hands in 1967 and again in 1968, changing names again to Dauntless, only to be sold again in 1986, 1989, and in 1997 – at scrap metal prices to her next owners – who proceeded to restore her for $60 million to the original 1921 condition including interior decor and the original steam engines. She was rechristened Delphine by Princess Stéphanie of Monaco on 10 September 2003. She was recently acquired by its current owners in 2015 and has returned to its home port of Monaco for the 2017 charter season.
SS Delphine off the French Riviera, July 2008.
SS Delphine (1921) - Wikipedia
Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
Other Events on 2 April
1755 HEICS Protector attacked and destroyed the fortress of Tulaji Angre
Protector was a ship of 580 tons (bm) launched in 1751 for the British East India Company as a fast heavily armed warship to deter pirates and the French Company in Indian waters. In 1761 a monsoon wrecked her while she rode at anchor in Pondicherry Roads.
1781 Frigate USS Alliance (36) captures 2 British privateers, Mars (26) and Minerva (10) off the French Coast
At dawn on 2 April a lookout sighted two ships to the northwest, Barry headed toward the strangers and ordered the Indiaman to follow. Undaunted, the distant vessels – which proved to be two British brigs – continued to approach the little American convoy and fired a broadside at the frigate as they passed abreast. Two answering salvoes from Alliance robbed the larger of the two English vessels of her rigging and forced her to strike her colors. Barry ordered Marquis De Lafayette to attend to the captured foe while he pursued and took the second brig. The first prize, a new and fast privateer from Guernsey named Mars though badly damaged, was repaired and sent to Philadelphia under an American crew. Marquis De Lafayette provided the prize crew for the smaller vessel, a Jersey privateer named Minerva. Barry ordered the prizemaster of this vessel to head for Philadelphia but Marquis De Lafayette's captain had secretly ordered him to head for France if he had a chance to slip away. On the night of 17 April, foul weather separated Mars from the convoy. Nevertheless, that prize dutifully continued on toward the Delaware capes. Minerva slipped away during the next night and apparently set course for the Bay of Biscay. Marquis De Lafayette dropped out of sight during a fierce storm on the night of the 25th.
Originally named Hancock, she was laid down in 1777 on the Merrimack River at Amesbury, Massachusetts, by the partners and cousins, William and James K. Hackett, launched on 28 April 1778, and renamed Alliance on 29 May 1778 by resolution of the Continental Congress. Her first commanding officer was Capt. Pierre Landais, a former officer of the French Navy who had come to the New World hoping to become a naval counterpart of Lafayette. The frigate's first captain was widely accepted as such in America. Massachusetts made him an honorary citizen and the Continental Congress gave him command of Alliance, thought to be the finest warship built to that date on the western side of the Atlantic
USS Alliance (1778) - Wikipedia
1801 – Launch of HMS Basilisk was a Bloodhound-class gun-brig built by Randall in Rotherhithe and launched in 1801
HMS Basilisk was a Bloodhound-class gun-brig built by Randall in Rotherhithe and launched in 1801. She served briefly at the end of the French Revolutionary Wars, with most of her service occurring during the Napoleonic Wars protecting convoys from privateers, conducting close-inshore surveillance and taking enemy coastal shipping. She was sold for breaking in 1815.
HMS Basilisk (1801) - Wikipedia
1814 Boats of HMS Porcupine (22), Cptn. Sir George R. Collier, captured 12 and destroyed 4 vessels.
On 2 April Captain Goode, who had ascended the Gironde above Pouillac, sent Porcupine's boats, under the orders of Lieutenant Robert Graham Dunlop, to pursue a French flotilla that was proceeding down from Blaye to Tallemont. As the British boats approached them, the French flotilla ran on shore under the cover of about 200 troops from Blaye who lined the beach. Dunlop landed with a party of seamen and marines and drove the French off. The landing party remained until the tide allowed them to take away most of the French vessels. The British captured a gun-brig, six gun-boats, one armed schooner, three chasse-marées, and an imperial barge, and burned a gun-brig, two gun-boats, and a chasse-marée. Total British casualties were two seamen missing and 14 seamen and marines wounded.
HMS Porcupine was a Royal Navy Banterer-class post ship of 24 guns, launched in 1807. She served extensively and relatively independently in the Adriatic and the Western Mediterranean during the Napoleonic Wars, with her boats performing many cutting out expeditions, one of which earned for her crew the Naval General Service Medal. She was sold for breaking up in 1816 but instead became the mercantile Windsor Castle. She was finally sold for breaking up in 1826 at Mauritius.
HMS Porcupine (1807) - Wikipedia
1825 – Launch of French Atalante, (launched 2 April 1825 at Lorient ) – deleted 28 DVestale class (58-gun type, 1820 design by Paul Filhon, comprising 30 x 24-pounder and 2 x 18-pounder guns, and 26 x 36-pounder carronades):
Vestale, (launched 6 May 1822 at Rochefort) – deleted 26 May 1831.
Vénus, (launched 11 March 1823 at Lorient) – deleted 1847.
Atalante, (launched 2 April 1825 at Lorient) – deleted 28 December 1850.ecember 1850.
1893 - Navy General Order 409 establishes the rank of Chief Petty Officer.
1899 - A landing party of 60 men from USS Philadelphia (C 4) and a force of 100 friendly natives join 62 men from HMS Porpoise and Royal Isle in Samoa to establish order over Samoan throne.
1912 – The ill-fated RMS Titanic begins sea trials.
Titanic - Wikipedia
1943 - USS Shad (SS 235) torpedoes and damages the Italian blockade runner Pietro Orseolo, shortly after the Italian ship reaches the Bay of Biscay and her escort of four German destroyers.
1943: Vor den Bermudas wird das britische Passagier- und Frachtschiff Melbourne Star von dem deutschen U-Boot U 129 torpediert. Es explodiert und sinkt innerhalb von zwei Minuten. 114 Menschen sterben.
Melbourne Star – Wikipedia
1945 - Under heavy naval gunfire and aircraft support, U.S. Army and U.S. Marine Corps troops begin the invasion of Okinawa, the last major amphibious assault of World War II.
1999 Nigeria, off the coast: passenger ferry sank more than 200 people died
1998 2. April 1998 - Nigeria: Untergang einer mit 300 Menschen besetzten Fähre vor der Küste nur 20 können gerettet werden.
Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
3 April 1694 – Launch of HMS Lancaster, an 80-gun third rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, at Bursledon
HMS Lancaster was an 80-gun third rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, launched at Bursledon on 3 April 1694.
She was rebuilt according to the 1719 Establishment at Portsmouth, from where she was relaunched on 1 September 1722. After this time, her armament of 80 guns, previously carried on two gundecks, was carried on three, though she continued to be classified as a third rate. On 15 February 1743 she was ordered to be taken to pieces and rebuilt at Woolwich Dockyard as a 66-gun third rate according to the 1741 proposals of the 1719 Establishment. This rebuild returned her to a two-decker, and she was relaunched on 22 April 1749.
Lancaster was broken up in 1773.
Scale: 1:48. Plan showing the body plan, sheer lines, and longitudinal half-breadth for Newark (1747), Devonshire (1745), and Lancaster (1749), all 1741 Establishment 80-gun Third Rate, three-deckers. Lancaster was re-ordered in 1747 as a 66-gun Third Rate, two-decker. Signed by Jacob Acworth [Surveyor of the Navy, 1715-1749]
Scale: 1:48. A contemporary block design model of a 74-gun, two-decker ship of the line (circa 1747). An accompanying label reads, ‘Ship of 74 guns about 1747 one of the first English 74's, originally designed as an 80-gun two decker (see No 58). Probably either the 'Culloden' (1747) or 'Lancaster' (1749). Dimensions Approximately Gun Deck 161ft Beam 46ft scale 1: 48 (1/4 inch to 1').’ The figurehead has been carved approximately to shape out of a solid block
HMS Lancaster (1694) - Wikipedia
Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
3 April 1701 - Relaunch of HMS St George, ex HMS Charles (1668)
HMS Charles was a 96-gun first-rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, built by Christopher Pett at Deptford Dockyard until his death in March 1668, then completed by Jonas Shish after being launched in the same month. Her name was formally Charles the Second, but she was known simply as Charles, particularly after 1673 when the contemporary Royal Charles was launched.
The Charles was renamed HMS St George in 1687 and reclassified as a second rate in 1691. In 1699-1701 she was rebuilt at Portsmouth Dockyard as a 90-gun second rate. In 1707, she belonged to Admiral Sir Cloudesley Shovell's fleet. Under the command of Captain James Lord Dursley, she saw action during the unsuccessful Battle of Toulon and was present during the great naval disaster off the Isles of Scilly when Shovell and four of his ships (Association, Firebrand, Romney and Eagle) were lost, claiming the lives of nearly 2,000 sailors. St George also struck rocks off Scilly, but got off.
The St George was taken to pieces at Portsmouth in 1726 to be rebuilt again. On 4 September 1733, St George was ordered to be rebuilt to the 1733 proposals of the 1719 Establishment. She was relaunched on 3 April 1740.
She was eventually broken up in September 1774.
The ‘Charles’, 96 guns, was built in 1668, renamed ‘St George’ in 1687, and rebuilt in 1701. This drawing is probably an offset and is worked up in graphite and wash with the exception of the quarter-gallery, of which there is a drawing in the NMM’s collection by the Younger dated 1676 (PAF6612). The decks of the ship are crowded with people, but the reason for this is not known
The ‘Charles’ viewed from before the port beam with the lower masts lightly sketched in. A flagstaff at the mizzen top suggests she was unrigged when drawn. On the broadside she carries fifteen guns on the gun deck, fourteen on the middle deck, fourteen on the upper deck, and five on the quarterdeck there are none on the forecastle and the poop armament is not visible. She has square decorated ports and a lion figurehead. This is one of a group of similar pencil drawings (PAH1843, PAH3909, PAF6564, PAH1844, PAH1845, PAH1846, PAH3910) all of which show ships high out of the water, without guns, and possibly made while they were laid up in ordinary (reserve)
On the left is the starboard side of a quarter-gallery viewed from slightly abaft the beam. One of the wales indicated ‘dit sijn de leijste’. On the right is the same gallery from before the beam. Inscribed ‘de gallerij van de karlis 1676’. This is an unsigned pencil drawing by the Younger. This is one of three drawings of detail of ships which were being drawn probably at the same time by the Elder (PAJ2300, PAI7579)
A trimmed drawing showing a close three-quarter view of the beakhead bulkhead (that is, the foremost section) of the Charles – identifiable from the lion figure-head, the top part of which is visible in the lower centre of the page. The forecastle and the ship’s distinctive projecting galleries are crowded with people. The image is an offset that has been worked with graphite overdrawing, and is similar to (though not taken from) the upper right section of PAJ2300
A composition adapted from the painting of the Battle of the Texel, 1673, by Willem van de Velde the Younger, painted in 1687 (see BHC0315). In that painting the Dutch ship 'Gouden Leeuw', 80 guns, is shown firing at the British ship, 'Charles', 96 guns. The Battle of Texel was the last battle of the Third Anglo-Dutch War, 1672-74. Although based closely on van de Velde's large painting, the central ship has been modified to become an English flagship, mainly by altering the flags. This distorts an already confused visual account since the positions of the ships in van de Velde's picture cannot be reconciled with either the written accounts or the drawings made of the battle by van de Velde the Elder. The red ensign differs from van de Velde's since it is of the post-1707 pattern with the St George's cross and St Andrew's cross superimposed on a blue ground in the upper quadrant. The sails of the central ship also have more holes to make it look as if the English have suffered more. Figures on deck are gesturing and waving their arms towards the Dutch. On far right the bow of a ship with a golden lion figurehead can be seen sinking. Figures are clambering off the wreck and into two heavily laden ship's boats. The plight of the sailors is shown in a number of ways. Figures are in the water, lowering themselves into it or clinging on to the wreck. Wreckage is strewn in the foreground of the painting and one figure hangs on to a floating mast with the Dutch flag prominently fixed at its peak. On the far left in the middle distance two British ships replace the two Dutch ones of van de Velde's painting while on the right Dutch ships replace British ones, all by merely changing the flags. Unlike the van de Velde, Woodcock has shown a calmer sea with less pronounced waves. The artist was a clerk in the Admiralty with a keen interest in ships. By the age of 30 he is known to have been painting in oils. He admired the van de Veldes and made a number of copies of their work. This is an example. His close parallels with van de Velde indicate that he must have known him and seen his work at first hand. At the time of his death Woodcock had not entirely escaped his influence to develop a distinctive style of his own. The Willem van de Veldes, father and son, came to England in 1672-73. The younger man's preferred subject matter was royal yachts, men-of-war and storm scenes. Unlike his father's pictures of sea battles, those he undertook after his arrival in England were not usually eyewitness accounts. However, after his father's death in 1693 he became an official marine painter and was obliged to be present at significant maritime events. The painting is signed on the spar, lower left, 'Richd. Woodcock'
HMS Charles (1668) - Wikipedia
Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
3 April 1756 – Launch of HMS Tartar, a 28-gun sixth-rate frigate of the Royal Navy.
HMS Tartar was a 28-gun sixth-rate frigate of the Royal Navy.
Tartar was designed by Sir Thomas Slade and based on the Lyme of 1748, "with such alterations as may tend to the better stowing of men and carrying for guns."
The ship was first commissioned in March 1756 under Captain John Lockhart, and earned a reputation as a fast sailer during service in the English Channel. She made many captures of French ships during the Seven Years' War, including 4 in 1756 and 7 the following year.
During the peace that followed, the ship sailed to Barbados carrying a timekeeper built by John Harrison, as a part of a series of experiments used to determine longitude at sea. She also served in the American Revolutionary War, capturing the Spanish Santa Margarita of 28 guns off Cape Finisterre on 11 November 1779.
She went on to see further service during the French Revolutionary War. On 14 December the French frigate Minerve captured off the island of Ivica the collier Hannibal, which was sailing from Liverpool to Naples. However, eleven days later, Tartar recaptured the Hannibal off Toulon and sent her into Corsica.
Tartar was part of the fleet under Lord Hood that occupied Toulon in August 1793. With HMS Courageux, Meleager, Egmont and Robust, she covered the landing, on 27 August, of 1500 troops sent to remove the republicans occupying the forts guarding the port. Once the forts were secure, the remainder of Hood's fleet, accompanied by 17 Spanish ships-of-the-line which had just arrived, sailed into the harbour. Tartar was wrecked off Saint-Domingue on 1 April 1797.
Scale 1:48. Plan showing the body plan, sheer lines with inboard detail and longitudinal half breadth for building Lowestoff (1756) and Tartar (1756), both 28-gun, Sixth Rate Frigates. Note the French influence on the designs bow shape, single bitts, and wheel abaft mizzen. Top right: "A Copy of this Draught was given to Mr Graves of Lime house for Building a 28-guns, p. 13th June 1755. Do to Mr Randell. of Rotherhithe."
Scale 1:48. Plan showing sheer lines and only one water line for Tartar (1757), a 28-gun, Sixth Rate Frigate, as being altered during repairs at Chatham by Mr Nicholson's Yard. The decks were raised, as shown by the ticked red lines. Annotation: top right: "A Copy was sent to Mr Belshar the Overseer 2nd December 1790."
The Lowestoffe class were a class of two 28-gun sixth-rate frigates of the Royal Navy. They served during the Seven Years' War, with HMS Tartar surviving to see action in the American War of Independence and the French Revolutionary Wars.
They were designed by Sir Thomas Slade, based on the prototype 28-gun frigate Lyme (launched in 1748), "with such alterations as may tend to the better stowing of men and carrying for guns". These alterations involved raising the headroom between decks. They were originally ordered as 24-gun ships with 160 men, but re-rated while under construction to 28 guns with the addition of 3-pounder guns on the quarterdeck and with their complement being raised to 180 men.
- Ordered: 20 May 1755
- Builder: John Greaves, Limehouse.
- Laid Down: June 1755
- Launched: 17 May 1756
- Completed: 8 June 1756 at Deptford Dockyard.
- Fate: Wrecked at Pointe-aux-Trembles, Canada on 19 May 1760.
- Ordered: 12 June 1755
- Builder: John Randall, Rotherhithe.
- Laid Down: 4 July 1755
- Launched: 3 April 1756
- Completed: 2 May 1756 at Deptford Dockyard.
- Fate: Wrecked at Puerto Plata, then burnt there 1 April 1797.
- Elizabeth 74 (1769) – broken up 1797
- Resolution 74 (1770) – broken up 1813
- Cumberland 74 (1774) – broken up 1804
- Berwick 74 (1775) – captured by France 1795, recaptured and wrecked, 1805
- Bombay Castle 74 (1782) – wrecked 1796
- Powerful 74 (1783) – broken up 1812
- Defiance 74 (1783) – broken up 1817
- Swiftsure 74 (1787) – captured by France 1801, same name, recaptured at the Battle of Trafalgar, 1805, renamed Irresistible 1805, broken up 1816
Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
3 April 1783 – Launch of HMS Powerful, a 74-gun third rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, at Blackwall Yard, London.
HMS Powerful was a 74-gun third rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, launched on 3 April 1783 at Blackwall Yard, London.
Found in Jamaica ,Port Royal 12th May 1794 with half her crew buried.
In 1805 the ship arrived too late to take part in the Battle of Trafalgar but was then detached to reinforce the East India squadron. On 13 June 1806 she captured the French privateer Henriette off Trincomalee, Sri Lanka. At the Action of 9 July 1806, disguised as an East Indiaman and together with the sloop Rattlesnake, she captured the privateer Bellone, which had been a serious threat to British trade.
She was broken up in 1812.
Scale: 1:48. Plan showing the body plan with sternboard outline, sheer lines with inboard detail, and longitudinal half-breadth for Powerful (a 74-gun Third Rate, two-decker, as built at Blackwall by Perry & Co. The foremast was later moved aft 1ft 2inches by a verbal order from the Admiralty Board dated 20 November 1783
Scale: 1:48. Plan showing the body plan with sternboard decoration and name on the counter, sheer lines with inboard detail and figurehead, and longitudinal half-breadth for Berwick (1775), a 74-gun Third Rate, two-decker, as built at Portsmouth Dockyard. The plan was later approved for Bombay Castle (1782), Powerful (1783), and Defiance (1783) of the same class. Signed by John Williams [Surveyor of the Navy, 1765-1784], and Edward Hunt [1778-1784]
The Elizabeth -class ships of the line were a class of eight 74-gun third rates, designed for the Royal Navy by Sir Thomas Slade.
Scale: 1:48. Plan showing the framing profile (disposition) for Bombay Castle (1782), Powerful (1783), Defiance (1783), and Thunderer (1783), all 74-gun Third Rate, two-deckers. The Thunderer (1783) is included in this design prior to the name being used for a ship in the Culloden/Thunder class of 1769. The plan is signed by John Williams (Surveyor of the Navy, 1765-1784
HMS Powerful (1783) - Wikipedia
Elizabeth-class ship of the line - Wikipedia
Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
3 April 1792 – Death of George Pocock, English admiral (b. 1706)
Admiral Sir George Pocock , KB (6 March 1706 – 3 April 1792) was a British officer of the Royal Navy.
George Pocock entered the navy in 1718, serving aboard HMS Superb under the patronage of his maternal uncle, Captain Streynsham Master (1682–1724). He became lieutenant in April 1725 and commander in 1733. In 1738 he was promoted to post-captain and granted command of the 20-gun HMS Aldborough. After serving in the West Indies he was sent to the East Indies Station in 1754 as captain of the 58-gun HMS Cumberland with Rear-Admiral Charles Watson. Watson's squadron co-operated with Clive in the conquest of Bengal. In 1755 Pocock became rear-admiral, and was promoted to vice-admiral in 1756.
Command of British naval forces in Indian waters
Further information: Great Britain in the Seven Years War
On the death of Watson in 1757 Pocock took the command of the naval forces in the East Indies. In 1758 he was joined by Commodore Charles Steevens (d. 1761), but the reinforcement only raised the squadron to seven small line-of-battle ships. War being now in progress between France and England the French sent a naval force from their islands in the Indian Ocean into the Bay of Bengal to the assistance of Pondicherry. To intercept the arrival of these reinforcements for the enemy now became the object of Pocock. The French force was indeed of less intrinsic strength than his own. Comte D'Aché who commanded it had to make up his line by including several Indiamen which were only armed merchant ships. Yet the number of the French was superior and Pocock was required by the practice of his time to fight by the old official fighting instructions. He had to bring his ships into action in a line with the enemy, and to preserve his formation while the engagement lasted.
All Pocock's encounters with D'Aché were indecisive. The first battle, on 29 April 1758, failed to prevent the Frenchmen from reaching Pondicherry. After a second and more severe engagement on 3 August, the French admiral returned to Mauritius, and when the monsoon set in Pocock went round to Bombay. He was back early in spring, relieving the Siege of Madras, but the French admiral did not return to the Bay of Bengal till September. Again Pocock was unable to prevent his opponent from reaching Pondicherry, and a well-contested battle between them on 10 September 1759 proved again indecisive. The French government was nearly bankrupt, and D'Aché could get no stores for his squadron. He was compelled to return to the islands, and the British were left in possession of the Coromandel and Malabar Coasts. Pocock went home in 1760, and in 1761 was made a Knight of the Bath and admiral.
In 1762 he was appointed to the command of the naval forces in the combined expedition which took Havana. The siege, which began on 7 June and lasted till 13 August, was rendered deadly by the climate. The final victory was largely attributable to the vigorous and intelligent aid which Pocock gave to the troops. His share in the prize money was no less than £122,697. On his return to England Pocock is said to have been disappointed because another officer, Sir Charles Saunders, was chosen in preference to himself as a member of the Admiralty Board, and to have resigned in consequence. It is certain that he resigned his commission in 1766. His monument is in Westminster Abbey.
In 1763 Pocock married Sophia (died 1767), the widow of his friend Commodore Digby Dent, daughter of George Francis Drake of Madras and step-daughter of George Morton Pitt who had inherited Pitt's house at Twickenham now known as Orleans House. Their son George (1765-1840) was created a baronet and their daughter Sophia (died 1811) married John 4th Earl Powlett.
Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
3 April 1794 – Launch of HMS Peterel (or Peterell), a 16-gun Pylades-class ship-sloop of the Royal Navy.
HMS Peterel (or Peterell) was a 16-gun Pylades -class ship-sloop of the Royal Navy. She was launched in 1794 and was in active service until 1811. Her most famous action was the capture of the French brig Ligurienne when shortly after Peterel captured two merchant ships and sent them off with prize crews, three French ships attacked her. She drove two on shore and captured the largest, the 14-gun Ligurienne. The Navy converted Peterel to a receiving ship at Plymouth in 1811 and sold her in 1827.
Battle between Ligurienne and HMS Peterel, 30 Ventôse an VIII (21 March 1800). Aquatint by Antoine Roux.
Design and construction
Peterel was part of the six-ship Pylades-class of ship-sloops designed by Sir John Henslow. The ship was built by John Wilson & Company of Frindsbury, and measured 365 57⁄94 tons bmwith a total length of 105ft 1in. She was initially armed with 16 6-pound guns and 4 ½-pounder swivel guns and carried a complement of 121 men. She was later re-armed with sixteen 24-pounder carronades on the upper deck, with six 12-pounder carronades on the quarterdeck and two 12-pounder carronades on the forecastle. The ship was ordered on 18 February 1793, laid down in May 1793 and launched on 4 April 1794. She moved to Chatham to be fitted-out and have her hull covered with copper plates between 4 April and July 1794 at her completion she had cost £7,694 to build including fitting.
Peterel was commissioned in April 1794 under Commander Stephen Church. In October Commander Edward Leveson-Gower replaced Church, only to be replaced in turn in July 1795 by Commander Charles Ogle. Peterel was at this stage assigned to the squadron in the Downs. Commander John Temple succeeded Ogle in January 1796. By 31 May Peterel had joined Horatio Nelson's squadron patrolling off Genoa. On that day Peterel was part of a small squadron under Nelson in Agamemnon that captured six French vessels that were carrying military supplies from Toulon to St. Piere d'Acena for the siege of Mantua. In July she was under the command of Captain Stuart. Stuart and Peterel directed the landing of troops for the capture of Porto Ferrajo on 10 July.
Commander Philip Wodehouse had taken command of Peterel by December 1796 when Peterel landed a small party under Lieutenant Thomas Staines on the coast of Corsica. The landing party attacked a Martello tower, which they captured, and threw its gun, a long 32-pounder, over the cliff.
Peterel's next captain, Commander William Proby, took over in March 1797. In June 1797 Proby authorised Staines to take 20 men in two of the ship's boats to cut out a French privateer that had been preying on merchant vessels off the coast of Tuscany. After a skirmish in which the British had five men wounded and the French lost several dead and wounded, the British took the privateer, which had a crew of 45 men and was armed with two long guns and several swivels.
By August Commander Thomas Caulfield had replaced Proby. Under Caulfield's command Peterel was involved in the capture of the French privateer Léopard on 30 April 1798. Leopard was armed with twelve 6-pounder guns and 14 swivel guns. She had a crew of 100 men and had been on the prowl for 20 days, but without having captured anything.
At some later stage she was commanded by Lieutenant Adam Drummond, who was followed by Commander Henry Digby. In September 1798, Digby sailed from Gibraltar to Faro, Portugal, to deliver despatches from Earl St. Vincent for the Lisbon packet. Staines took the six men in Peterel's jolly boat to deliver the despatches to the packet when the jolly boat overturned in heavy seas. Four men drowned and Staines and the other man were only rescued after four hours.
Digby's replacement in October that year was to be Commander Hugh Downman, but in November Captain George Long was in command, serving with John Duckworth's squadron at Menorca.
Capture and recapture
Peterel participated in the Capture of Menorca (1798) by the British expedition under Commodore John Duckworth. On 12 November 1798 the Spanish 40-gun frigate Flora, in company with the 40-gun Proserpina and the 34-gun ships Pomona and Casilda, captured Peterel whilst she was operating off Menorca. One of the Spanish ships fired a broadside after she surrendered. After removing the prisoners from the ship, the Spanish plundered their clothes and possessions, murdering a seaman who attempted to defend his property. Duckworth detached Argo to pursue the sloop and on 13 November she retook Peterel and her 72-man Spanish prize crew, which was under the command of Don Antonio Franco Gandrada, Second Captain of Flora. Captain James Bowen of Argo put his own prize crew of 46 officers seamen and marines aboard Peterel. Duckworth later appointed his first lieutenant, George Jones, to command Peterel. Most of the clothes belonging to Captain Long and his officers were subsequently recovered. This charge of ill-usage was officially contradicted in the Madrid Gazette of 12 April, but was, nevertheless, essentially true.
The Spanish squadron, already being chased the next day by several British ships, completely outsailed their pursuers and returned to Cartagena with the prisoners. After a detention of 14 days at Cartagena, Lieutenant Staines and his fellow prisoners were embarked in a merchant brig bound to Málaga but they did not arrive there until 24 December, a westerly wind having obliged the vessel to anchor off Almeria, where she was detained upwards of three weeks, and her passengers confined on shore during that period. From Málaga, the British were marched to Gibraltar, under a strong escort of soldiers, who treated both officers and men with great brutality, but particularly Lieutenant Staines, who had received a sabre wound in the wrist whilst parrying a blow which one of those soldiers had aimed at his head. On their arrival at the rock, a court-martial was assembled to investigate the circumstances attending their capture by the Spanish squadron and as no blame could be attached to any individual, the whole of them were sent back to the Peterel immediately after their acquittal.
On 3 February 1799 Francis Austen, the brother of author Jane Austen and future admiral of the fleet, took command of Peterel. Peterel and Austen shared in the proceeds of the capture on 18 June 1799 of the French frigates Courageuse, Alceste, and Junon, and the brigs Alerte and Salamine. Under Austen, Peterel captured or cut out from ports an armed galley, a transport brig carrying cannons and ammunition, and some twenty merchant vessels. In May 1799 Peterelcarried the news to Lord Nelson at Palermo, Sicily, that a large enemy fleet had passed through the straits of Gibraltar.
On the evening of 1 August 1799, at 9 P.M., Minerve's boats came alongside Peterel. Austen sent these boats and his own to cut out some vessels from the Bay of Diano, near Genoa. Firing was heard at around midnight and by morning the boats returned, bringing with them a large settee carrying wine, and the Virginie. Virginie was a Turkish-built half-galley that the French had captured at Malta the year before. She had provision for 26 oars and carried six guns. She was under the command of a lieutenant de vaisseau and had a crew of 36 men, 20 of whom had jumped overboard when the British approached, and 16 of whom the British captured. She had brought General Joubert from Toulon and was going on the next day to Genoa where Joubert was to replace General Moreau in command of the French army in Italy. Minerve and Peterel shared the proceeds of the capture of Virginie with Santa Teresa and Vincejo.
Ligurienne under way.
In March 1800, Peterel was sailing near Marseille with the frigate HMS Mermaid. On 21 March, Peterel spotted a large convoy with three escorts: the brig-sloop French brig Ligurienne, armed with fourteen brass 6-pounder guns and two brass 36-pounder howitzers, the corvette Cerf, of fourteen 6-pounder guns, and the xebec Lejoille, of six 6-pounder guns. Peterel captured a bark of 350 tons and a bombarde (ketch) of 150 tons, both carrying wheat and which their crews had abandoned, and sent them off with prize crews later that afternoon the escorts caught up to Peterel and attacked. Mermaid was in sight but a great distance to leeward and so unable to assist. Single-handedly, Peterel drove Cerf and Lejoille on shore, and after a 90-minute battle captured Ligurienne, which lost the French commander (lieutenant de vaisseaux Citoyen Francis Auguste Pelabon), and one sailor killed and two sailors wounded out of her crew of 104 men there were no British casualties. Cerf was a total loss but the French were able to salvage Lejoille. The whole action took place under the guns of two shore batteries and so close to shore that Peterel grounded for a few minutes. Austen recommended, without success, that the Navy purchase Ligurienne, which was less than two years old. In 1847 the Admiralty authorised the issue of the Naval General Service medal with clasp "Peterel 21 March 1800" to all surviving claimants from the action.
On 14 April 1800 Peterel and Phaeton captured St. Rosalia.
Peterel went on to take part in operations against the French forces in Egypt. On 13 August 1800, Peterel was sailing towards Alexandria when she spied a Turkish 80-gun ship of the line totally dismasted and aground near Aboukir Bay, with three Turkish frigates standing offshore, out of range of any French guns on shore. Some of the Turkish crew of the ship of the line had reached the frigates, but the captain and most of the crew had surrendered to the French. Austen sent in a pinnace and ten men who set fire to the Turkish ship to forestall any further French attempts to plunder it, especially of its guns and ammunition. Commander Charles Inglis officially replaced Austen in June 1800, but apparently did not actually take command until some months later.
On 8 March 1801, Peterel, Cameleon, and another sloop supported the British landing at Abu Qir Bay by stationing themselves close in with their broadsides towards the shore. Because Peterel served in the navy's Egyptian campaign (8 March to 2 September 1801), her officers and crew qualified for the clasp "Egypt" to the Naval General Service Medal that the Admiralty authorized in 1850 for all surviving claimants.
In July–August 1802, Peterel was part of a small anti-smuggling squadron under the command of Captain King, of Sirius. who further had command of a small squadron on anti-smuggling duties. The other vessels in the squadron were Carysfort, Imogen, and Rosario.
From 29 April 1802 until 1809 Peterel was under Commander John Lamborn. In May 1804, she sailed for Jamaica and Barbados, convoying the West Indies trade, and thereafter remained in the West Indies for some years. She destroyed a small privateer on the Jamaica station on 23 January 1805. The privateer was a felucca, armed with one 4-pounder gun and a swivel gun. She had a crew of 27 men, all except one of whom escaped after they ran her on shore and before Peterel's boats arrived to burn her. The privateer had captured an American brig which she had sent into Havana where the brig was sold.
On 8 February, Pique captured the Spanish warship Urquixo, of 18 guns and 82 men. Peterel shared in the proceeds.
On 13 May Peterell captured the Spanish privateer schooner Santa Anna off Cuba. Santa Anna was armed with one long 18-pounder gun and four 6-pounder guns, and had a crew of 106 men. She had sailed from Santiago de Cuba only the day before and had not yet captured anything. At some point in 1805 or 1806, Peterel captured the ship Hoffnung, in sight of the armed schooner Arab, Lieutenant Carpenter, commander.
In early October 1806, Peterel was part of a convoy from Jamaica. Near North Edisto she encountered the French privateer Superbe, of 14 guns and 150 men. The privateer mistook Peterel for a guineaman and attempted to board. Peterelrepulsed the attempt and then gave chase as Captain Dominique Houx (or Diron) of Superbe realized his mistake and made his escape. In the skirmish, Lieutenant Maitland of Peterel was killed, and four seamen were wounded. Peterelcaptured one of the French boarders who reported that a broadside from Peterel had killed some 30 to 40 men on Superbe as she came up to board. On 27 October, Pitt, under the command of Lieutenant William Fitton, caught up with Superbe in Ocoa Bay after a 50-hour chase. Pitt captured Superbe, with Drake in sight, after Houx ran her aground. Houx and most of his crew escaped, though a number had been killed in the running battle with Pitt.
Peterel was fitted as a receiving ship at Plymouth in August 1811 and served in that capacity until 1825. Peterel was put up sale at Plymouth on 11 July 1827, and sold that same day to Joshua Crystall at Plymouth for £730.
The American Schooner bore down on the Pylades Sloop of war, mistaking her, but on receiving a shot made sail & escaped hoisting a white flag at her fore 'Catch me who can' G.H (PAD6391)