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19 May 1941
British "Habbaniya Brigade" captures Falluja
French Vichy Government announces the release of 100,000 French prisoners of war. Under the terms of the French surrender they were to be held prisoner until the end of the war, then believed to be imminent.
The Italian Viceroy of Ethiopa surrenders at Amba Alagi
Wheels West Day in Susanville History – May 19, 1941
Mrs. Maud E. Tombs, Lassen county clerk, entertained earlier this week at her home on Roop Street, on the occasion of the birthday anniversary of her daughter, Miss Mardelie McCleland.
Mr. and Mrs. R. E. Trussell entertained recently in Johnstonville in honor of Mrs. John Volner, who has been visiting here from Tule Lake.
Lassen county stockmen have sold to the United States army about 20 head of horses for the remount service. The sellers included Ralph Blosser, William Bailey, Bert Jensen, Don Wemple, Masten Ramsey, Ceryl Schott, Rube Lyons, Norris Gerig, Elbert Spraker and the Clarke Stock Company.
Mrs. Roita Wilbur of Janesville has received word of the death of her sister, Mrs. Eva Gordon, 78, in Muskegon, Mich., a week ago. She was born in Milford and was the widow of Frank Hostetter of that place. She was proprietor of several silver fox farms in Texas and in Traverse City, Mich.
E. F. McCarthy, vocational agriculture instructor in the Lassen Union high school, reports that horses and stock from Fallon and Carson City have already filed entry in the rodeo and racing program next Saturday by the schools’ Future Farmer organization.
Entries are promised from Reno. Greenville, Cedarville, Adin and Alturas already have entered show stock in the rodeo.
Denton Record-Chronicle (Denton, Tex.), Vol. 40, No. 244, Ed. 1 Monday, May 26, 1941
Daily newspaper from Denton, Texas that includes local, state, and national news along with advertising.
eight pages : ill. page 22 x 17 in. Digitized from 35 mm. microfilm.
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Denton's first public library opened on June 6, 1937, in Denton County Courthouse. It quickly outgrew the space and in 1949, the City of Denton donated a tract of land on Oakland Street for a new library.
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- Main Title: Denton Record-Chronicle (Denton, Tex.), Vol. 40, No. 244, Ed. 1 Monday, May 26, 1941
- Serial Title:Denton Record-Chronicle
Daily newspaper from Denton, Texas that includes local, state, and national news along with advertising.
eight pages : ill. page 22 x 17 in.
Digitized from 35 mm. microfilm.
Published every afternoon except Sunday.
Library of Congress Subject Headings
University of North Texas Libraries Browse Structure
Unique identifying numbers for this issue in the Portal or other systems.
- Library of Congress Control Number: sn86088888
- OCLC: 14198299 | External Link
- Archival Resource Key: ark:/67531/metapth1307372
- Volume: 40
- Issue: 244
- Edition: 1
This issue is part of the following collections of related materials.
While Denton has had many newspapers, the Denton Record-Chronicle has had the longest history and is considered the city's paper of record. The Denton Chronicle was established in 1882 as a weekly newspaper. In 1899, the paper became the Denton Record and Chronicle, when the Denton Chronicle combined with another local newspaper, the Denton County Record.
Denton County Newspapers Collection
Documenting the history of Denton County and its county seat from 1892-1911, the Denton County Newspaper Collection offers a detailed view into the growth and expansion of the county as an agricultural and educational hub.
Texas Digital Newspaper Program
The Texas Digital Newspaper Program (TDNP) partners with communities, publishers, and institutions to promote standards-based digitization of Texas newspapers and to make them freely accessible.
16 thoughts on &ldquoLiverpool’s ‘May Blitz’&rdquo
My dad was on the MV Kiamata when the ammunition ship exploded. His ship was 3 docks away and the ship had the wheel house ripped off and about 600 hole in the superstructure. The ship went to New York for repairs and then went to Australia
Living in Canada now after experiences already related on site, I am 93, endured growing up in working class district of Arthur Street Dingle, Parkhill Road School, starting work at 14, a harsh hungry childhood and worse to come as we experience fuel and food strict rationing through the Blitz, and scare of Invasion, glad to get away and volunteer for Royal Navy were I served in Italy and Yugoslavia with Naval Signal Party then eventually out to the far East Ceylon Maybon Singapore and Hong Kong. After war 6 years with Liverpool Fire Dept then emigration to Canada with my wife Alma and baby boy for a new beginning. It was all that I hoped for.
Does anyone have any memories/stories about what the hospitals were like during/after the raids?
(I’m trying to write a story partly set in Liverpool (my home town) during the Blitz)
My nan lived in fountains road she had been out with my grandad her mum dad and sister were on the front step they told her there was tea in the kitchen as she was in the kitchen a bomb dropped and killed her mum dad and sister her sister was blown onto the air raid shelter
May 3rd 1941 was my 3rd birthday (I am now 80) and that night the back of our house was blown out. We lived at the bottom end of one of the Flower Streets of Kirkdale (No 5 Pansy Street) and I still have my birthday cards from that day covered in soot from when we picked them up out of the debris. Fortunately for us we weren’t in the house at the time as “our shelter” was the cellar of “Scott’s” bread shop at the top of the street – for which we had to pay rent …. still have the rent-book to prove it! Reason for this was due to the “back jigger” going in at an angle as you went down to Commercial Road resulting in a shorter back-yard which didn’t allow a shelter to be accommodated. Just as well ! My Dad (& my Grand-Dad who lived next door in #7) were both ARP wardens during this grim period, carrying on with their normal daily jobs throughout. “Malakand” and its contents was only half-a-mile-or-so from us “as the crow flies”.
Some months later we moved over the road to Briar Street where Mum & Dad lived their lives out until their deaths in 1988/89. That week-end, “St Ath’s” in Fountains Rd (where they were married in May 1937 & where I was christened 12 months later) “copped it” too!
My mother who lived in Birkenhead told us about when she worked at Cammel Lairds as a Tracer when Ww2 started she also helped out at Report & Control in the evening sending fire brigade and ambulances wherever they were required. I vaguely remember her saying she was stationed inside the Liver Building but I have my doubts ! Could anyone recollect where this could have been ??
Just out of interest she mentioned there were suits of armour in the same place. Hopefully someone can remember!!
Now in my 90,s I experienced the May Blitz personally, working as a 15yr old in the Municipal Courts at Dale St and Hatton Garden, did my duty as Fire Watcher on roof during heavy bombing, acted as a fire messenger at next door Fire Station, redirect appliances, remember Bomb hitting Candle factory in Cheapside with burning wax running down gutter into Dale Street, bomb also damaged back of fire station, memories off burning gas mains, spouting, damaged water mains, vast craters, smoke roaring fires and those exhausted firemen and rescue workers our unforgettable heroes, Shrapnel from the AA guns rained down red hot.
Remember another time being in Cinema, movie ” No Orchids for Miss Blandish” stops then “Air Raid in Progress” on screen we proceed to shelter at side of building when Land Mine hits Buildins at Low Hill demolishing huge area, covered in concrete dust we emerge into a “Dantes”inferno after “All Clear” sounds , yes I have memories I took with me into Home Guard and the at 17 volunteering for Royal Navy serving in Italy, Yugoslavia and Far East.
My uncle Norman Raynor was on the anti aircraft guns on Liverpool docks during WW2. That got a pound for every enemy plane shot down.
Here is a link to a new Liverpool history themed website. It has fun cartoon facts about the Liverpool Blitz, Evacuation and the facts and fiction of Hitler living in Liverpool.
brilliant article used it for my homework really useful thanks
Dad applied to join RAF but refused as he was in ‘reserved occupation’ he became APR warden instead. Just as well or I might not be here! I had to visit Radium Institute in Liverpool 1, Myrtle Street, as a child & remember the scenes of devastation in town, so much damage. (only to the buildings, not the Liverpool spirit)!
Just wondering if anyone knows about a ship that came from south Asia and was bombed my paternal and maternal uncle were on that ship they came from India to help fight please respond if anyone knows anything
Many thanks Steve, as of May 2013 I have replaced it with some more recently available photographs.
The video is no longer at that YouTube link.
I served my engineering apprenticeship with a company based across the road called Charles Howson, and I remember a ships plate from the Malakand in their reception which fascinated me.
Really interesting article- Liverpool looks so different now!
Today in World War II History—May 21, 1941
80 Years Ago—May 21, 1941: Neutral US freighter Robin Moor is sunk by German U-boat U-69 in the South Atlantic, the first US ship sunk in the Atlantic in WWII the crew survives but spends over 2 weeks in lifeboats.
Germans attempt amphibious landings on Crete but are stopped by the Royal Navy.
In tests in Louisiana, the US Navy chooses a bow-ramp version of the Higgins boat to go into production as the Landing Craft, Vehicle and Personnel (LCVP).
Troops of Company E, 16th Infantry, US 1st Infantry Division approach Fox Green section of Omaha Beach in an LCVP landing craft, Normandy, 6 Jun 1944 (US National Archives: 195515)
More U.S. deaths than World War I and Vietnam: How COVID-19 compares with other deadly events
If a picture speaks a thousand words, what do numbers say?
More than 200,000 people in the U.S. have died of COVID-19 since the coronavirus hit our shores, and the count steadily grows.
The death toll has surpassed the number of Americans killed in World War I and the Vietnam War combined.
Each victim represents a single life. But the sum fails to measure the toll that extends beyond one person. Each of those individuals was connected to someone — as a parent, child, neighbor, co-worker, loved one.
The log of our great catastrophes takes in disasters both natural and man-made. We stack them up, place them side by side, but there is no comparing. Each is unique and uniquely tragic.
Numbers lend perspective. They allow for rankings. But they can’t measure the true extent of loss.
The Far East 1941 to 1945
The war in the Far East truly internationalised the war being fought in Europe. The war taking place in Europe took on a new dimension in December 1941 when Japan attacked the American naval base at Pearl Harbor. War in the Far East now made the Second World War truly global.
Today it seems astonishing that a country as small as Japan would attack America but this is what happened in December 1941. Why did Japan attack America ?
1) The Japanese at this time had a very low opinion of the Americans who they saw as drunks who were incapable of hard work. It was believed in Tokyo that the Americans would be an easy target as they lacked fighting spirit. There were those in Japan who actually believed that America could be defeated by Japan. In particular, the military high command was far more influential in Tokyo than politicians who were seen by the public to be weak and ineffective.
2) Japan was expanding throughout the whole of the Far East following her invasion of Manchuria and in 1941 it seemed that America would use her economic muscle to stop Japan Japan greatly depended on American oil and America was on the verge of stopping all oil exports to Japan which would have crippled Japan’s military machine. Japan needed to hit America hard and it was believed in Tokyo that a devastating attack would put America off of having any influence in the Pacific leaving Japan with a free hand.
On December 7th 1941, a large bomber force attacked the American Pacific Naval force based at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. Three battleships were sunk and sixteen other ships damaged. Over 120 ‘planes were destroyed and 2400 people were killed and many more were wounded.
But the vital aircraft carriers stationed at Pearl Harbour were all out on manoeuvres and the oil reserves kept at Pearl Harbor had been drained into underground reservoirs. This has lead some to believe that the American government knew about the raid all along and let it go ahead so that the American public would be so angered by it that when the president, Roosevelt, announced that he had declared war on Japan it would be warmly received by the public.
At the time before Pearl Harbor there was no obvious evidence that Americans wanted to get involved in a war despite her aid to the Allies fighting Nazi Germany. On December 8th, 1941 America declared war on Japan and Roosevelt received a standing ovation in the American Congress
Why weren’t hundreds of Japanese planes seen flying into Hawaii ? America had radar so they should have been spotted. But an American B17 bomber force was also flying into Pearl Harbor and it is probable that the radar spotters knew this and ignored the sighting of Japanese planes on the radar screens thinking that they were US bombers. In fact, the radar crew did report their sighting only to be told to ignore it.
Did America crack Japan’s secret code giving details of the raid ? Many think that they had but the official reason given in Washington for not informing Pearl Harbor earlier was that American Intelligence forgot that Hawaii was in a different time zone to them and did not realise this until too late and this delayed Washington informing Hawaii. An important message to the base commanders was received after the raid on Pearl Harbor had finished.
However, it is strange that all the aircraft carriers were out at the same time – it had never happened before – and that all the oil (which would have been a vital loss) was drained into safety. The ships that were lost at Pearl Harbor were replaceable and so were the ‘planes. The carriers would have been much more difficult to replace.
Ultimately, the raid may well have been a surprise. It did infuriate America and Japan found that she had woken a “sleeping tiger”. The “dastardly attack” (Roosevelt) did not defeat America but it was to plunge the Pacific and the Far East into a horrific war that was to end in the use of the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Why were the Japanese so successful at the start of the war?
1. Both the Americans and British – the major colonial powers in the Far East – were unprepared for war. The Japanese had been fighting in Manchuria and China for nearly ten years and they had developed battle tactics needed for modern warfare. Japan’s economy revolved around the military and she was simply more prepared for a full-scale assault on the Far East than either the British or Americans.
2. No soldiers fought like the Japanese. A senior British commander in the Far East – General Slim – commented that every nation spoke about fighting to the last man, but only the Japanese did this. The Japanese soldier lived by the Bushido belief. His life was unimportant and he dedicated his life to the emperor who was a god. To die for the emperor was a great honour and guaranteed a soldier a place in heaven. Therefore the Japanese fought in a manner never seen before. The sheer ferocity of an attack and the failure of the Japanese to surrender or retreat took the Allies by surprise. A Japanese soldier could not understand how or why a soldier would want to surrender and bring shame on his family and emperor. This is why captured Allied soldiers were treated so harshly by the Japanese – they had committed the ultimate sin in the eyes of the Japanese.
Japanese soldiers were trained to live off the land so that supplying troops was never a major problem at the outset of the war. Obedience to officers was total – this had been physically punched into the Japanese soldiers during their training. This culminated in the thousands of young Japanese who volunteered for the kamikazes – either through the use of planes or as ‘human torpedoes’.
In contrast to the Japanese approach to war, the British still fought ‘by the rules’. An example was the British base of Singapore. Britain fully expected Singapore to be attacked once war had started, but we expected an attack to come from the sea. Hence £50 million defence improvements to Singapore faced out to sea. When the Japanese attacked Singapore, they came through the jungles to the north. The newly placed guns to attack Japanese shipping did not face inland. We simply did not expect a military force to come through jungle as we had never experienced anything like this before. The loss of Singapore and the troops stationed there was a huge blow to Britain – both militarily and psychologically.
3. To some extent, the Japanese had the local population on their side to start with as they played on the fact that the British and Americans were the colonial masters of the region and the Japanese offered these people freedom from colonial rule. Such a promise was never kept, of course.
4. America’s military might was based in America itself and any deployment of this might would take time to organise thus giving Japan more of a free hand in the area with regards to conquering land.
Japan took vast sections of the Far East in a matter of months. However, once America got her military act together, such swift Japanese advances had to come to a halt.
Why did Japan eventually lose the Pacific War?
1) The sheer massive power of America overwhelmed Japan once the USA got itself fully organised. Her ability to produce war goods and her man power totally outstripped Japan. Also all her factories were on the US mainland so they were free from any fear of bombing. Do note that the attack on Pearl Harbour sunk a number of ships including 3 battleships – this made great propaganda for the government but the ships were not critical from a military point of view and were easily replaced in the numerous shipyards in America.
2) Japan only had 10% of America’s economic might and was very short of basic and vital minerals especially iron and oil. America had both of these in huge quantities. If the Americans lost a capital ship (a battleship or aircraft carrier) it was simply a loss. If the Japanese lost a capital ship it was a disaster as it could not be easily replaced. After the Battle of Leyte Gulf (Oct 1944) the Japanese Navy all but ceased to exist. The navy minister, Admiral Yonai, said with regards to the result at Leyte Gulf, “ I felt that that was the end.”
3) The American submarine service targeted Japanese merchant ships transporting goods from mainland Asia to Japan. She had 8.9 million tons of shipping of which the submarines alone sunk 55%. Thus Japan was starved of needed commodities. She only had 3% of America’s farmland so food was a real problem. When America had the range she bombed Japanese cities and factories.
43,000 tons of bombs were dropped on factories in Japan and 104,000 tons on 66 cities. The bombing of factories was effectively a waste of time as they were already starved of raw materials anyway. The fire bombing of Tokyo made it clear to the Japanese government that it was facing complete destruction.
4) US forces in the Pacific were commanded by Douglas MacArthur. He realised that the Japanese Imperial Army would take years to defeat if every island in the Pacific was fought over. The American casualties would be massive. Her forces at Iwo Jima and Okinawa had taken many deaths from just a handful of defenders. He adopted a policy of taking the main islands only and ignoring the smaller ones which could be ignored and isolated with the troops on them being left without any transport to get off of them. This was called “island hopping” and the small islands were “left to wither on the vine“. This does explain why Japanese troops were found on Pacific islands some years after the war but it also confirmed to those who had fought that the Japanese were fanatics who would have inflicted massive casualties on Allied troops if each island had been taken.
In mainland Asia, British and Commonwealth forces had pushed back the Japanese as they approached India. Fierce fighting took place on the mainland though it was rarely reported back home in Britain and the men who fought out in the Far East frequently referred to themselves as “The Forgotten Army”. Orde Wingates’s ‘Chindits’ fought the Japanese using what would now be called Special Forces tactics – dropping by parachute behind enemy lines, disrupting their supply routes and generally causing the Japanese the maximum damage.
5) American intelligence estimated that if a land invasion of Japan was to take place i.e. if Japan refused to surrender, then America would have to expect at least one million casualties which would be politically and militarily unacceptable. It was thought that the Japanese would get together a Home Guard of at least 14 million to guard both the country and the emperor. With the example of kamikazes, many generals in America feared that the war would go on for a long time and that a surrender would have to come from the emperor for all Japanese to obey it. With this background, President Truman authorised the use of the atomic bomb. On August 6th, 1945 Hiroshima was attacked and on August 9th, Nagasaki. The emperor ordered a surrender.
6. Once America had got herself prepared, Japan could not have won the Pacific War. Her overwhelming industrial might, her vast food producing capacity, her huge manpower and her freedom from bombing, meant that Japan had to take on the world’s most powerful nation. The fact that it took so long for this victory can be explained by the ferocious commitment of the Japanese soldier and the geography of the region. But nearly all historians are of the opinion that an Allied victory was inevitable.
During World War II, the SS and other German occupation authorities concentrated urban and sometimes regional Jewish populations in ghettos. Living conditions were miserable. Ghettos were often enclosed districts that isolated Jews by separating Jewish communities from the non-Jewish population and from other Jewish communities. The Germans established at least 1,143 ghettos in the occupied eastern territories. There were three types of ghettos:
German occupation authorities established the first ghetto in occupied Poland in Piotrków Trybunalski in October 1939. The largest ghetto in occupied Poland was the Warsaw ghetto. In Warsaw, more than 400,000 Jews were crowded into an area of 1.3 square miles. Other major ghettos were established in the cities of Lodz, Krakow, Bialystok, Lvov, Lublin, Vilna, Kovno, Czestochowa, and Minsk. Tens of thousands of western European Jews were also deported to ghettos in the east.
The Germans ordered Jews in the ghettos to wear identifying badges or armbands. They also required many Jews to carry out forced labor for the German Reich. Nazi-appointed Jewish councils (Judenraete) administered daily life in the ghettos. A ghetto police force enforced the orders of the German authorities and the ordinances of the Jewish councils. This included facilitating deportations to killing centers. Jewish police officials, like Jewish council members, served at the whim of the German authorities. The Germans did not hesitate to kill those Jewish policemen who were perceived to have failed to carry out orders.
Pearl Harbor and Japanese-Americans
Following the attack of December 7th 1941, many Japanese-Americans were guilty until proven innocent in the eyes of the US military.
Immediately after the attack, US animosity toward Japanese-Americans reached a fever pitch. All of the photographs displayed in this article were taken just after the attack. The locations were southern California and ‘Little Tokyo’, an area in downtown Los Angeles where around 20,000 Japanese-Americans lived. The picture above is fascinating on a number of levels. The American paperboy stands out, surrounded by Japanese-Americans. Perhaps he is attempting to remain calm and not make eye contact with the Japanese paperboy standing next to him. ‘Japan Attacks Hawaii, Manila’, the Los Angeles Examiner’s top line reads.
Undertones of mistrust had started long before the attack. On June 6th, 1941, Raymond Lawrence, an Oakland Tribune columnist, used subheadings such as ‘Japan Nears Showdown’, comparing Japan to Italy. Lawrence wrote: ‘With Japan playing Hitler’s game in the Pacific, we are forced to keep the whole fleet at Pearl Harbor. With Japan in the war, we could deal with her expeditiously and then turn our attention to the Atlantic where the final issue will be decided.’ Although Lawrence was simply stating his opinion, his words show how a large swathe of American population had long feared a Pacific attack.
By October 1941, FBI agents were targeting dozens of Japanese-American citizens, perhaps following leads based on hints they had received from local law enforcement. By the afternoon of December 7th, however, the FBI was given carte blanche when it came to questioning anyone suspicious. Perhaps this feeling of resignation, or ‘shocked silence’, is what we see on the faces of the Japanese-Americans in the picture at the top of this article, snapped in the late afternoon of December 7th. Next to his American counterpart, the Japanese paperboy is handing out the Rafu Shimpo, a Japanese newspaper still in circulation today. Though it is difficult to see, we can pick up a few kanji, reading ‘Gogai’ which translates as ‘Extra Edition’.
Rather quickly, respectable Japanese-American citizens saw that they were trapped within a cultural quagmire. They loved America and the opportunities it gave them. In particular, the Nisei (second generation, American born) had carved out lives in Little Tokyo and had only the faintest connections to Japan. Yet simply based on their appearance, they realised that glares from other American citizens would now be a regular part of their daily lives. Japan in their blood, America in their hearts, they walked quietly down the sidewalks of Los Angeles, torn between two countries.
On February 19th, 1942, a mere 72 days after the attack, President Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066, essentially creating internment camps for ‘suspicious’ Japanese-Americans. ‘The successful prosecution of the war requires every possible protection against espionage and against sabotage to national-defense material’, Roosevelt stated.
America has a dark tradition of ethnic paranoia and racial profiling. In the 1950s, the Cold War caused countless Russian-Americans to be imprisoned and questioned due to communist fears. After 9/11, Arab-Americans were subjected to multiple levels of racial profiling, and to this day still feel ostracized. American law enforcement has been unjustly profiling African-Americans for centuries. Donald Trump’s presidential candidacy was a perpetual parade of xenophobic vernacular, and comparions have been made betwen Trump’s attitudes toward Muslims and Roosevelt’s decision to register Japanese-Americans as exiles in their own country.
As early as the afternoon of December 7th, the FBI had started to round-up close to ‘300 alien Japanese suspected of subversive activities’ and had made plans to place another 3000 in ‘protective custody.’ Terminal Island, an artificial island that rests near Long Beach, California, was home to nearly 6000 first and second generation Japanese-Americans, many of whom were fishermen. Moments after the attack, according to the Associated Press, ‘Federal agents and army troops … established a blockade around Terminal Island … FBI agents ordered no aliens would be permitted to enter or leave.’
For the Terminal Island residents who had been in transit on a ferry, all were stopped and taken by military personnel to a location such as the one in the picture above, taken late on December 7th. The photo shows the anger and humiliation many Japanese-Americans felt, such as the woman holding her left hand up to her face to avoid identification: ‘They were herded into a wire enclosure and were guarded by soldiers from Fort McArthur … Terminal Island…has become (a) huge concentration camp with aliens refused right to leave confines and citizens ordered to stay home.’
Later in the day on December 7th, ‘watching bulletins’ started to appear in Little Tokyo, words of caution influenced no doubt by the US military’s manic ambition to questions any and all residents of Japanese descent.
A translation, by Yuka Goto, of the bulletin shown above reads:
Extra Edition - from America Industry Journal
Today at 1.30pm, Columbia Broadcasting Station announced that 50-100 Japanese bombers attacked Hawaii’s Pearl Harbor and Manila. Since the source is unknown and it is an impossible event, still we are seeking verification and expect fellow citizens and everybody to stay cautious.
Thousands of men and women grew nervous that their Los Angeles lifestyles would soon be taken from them. With stealth-like quickness, the military had decided to pursue a blanket-judgment policy, when in fact they had had their eyes on turning Terminal Island into a base for almost a year before the attack.
The attack on Pearl Harbor should always be seen as an impulsive and short-sighted reaction to failed negotiations between two countries hungry for global authority. The Japanese government had wanted the US to ‘restore all commercial relations with Japan, unfreeze Japanese assets in (America) and supply Japan with oil.’ If the US complied, Japan ‘agreed to undertake not to send armed forces into any other country in the South Pacific except French Indo-China,’ but were willing to compromise on this, if it meant an ‘establishment of an equitable peace in the Pacific area’, (key word being ‘equitable’).
America’s demands were more absolute: ‘Japanese withdrawal of all military forces from China and Indo-China.’ The US also wanted Japan to join them in ‘recognizing only the national government of China.’ If Japan complied, ‘trade barriers’ would, generally speaking, be reduced between the countries, and assets unfrozen.
Neither side wished to budge, too invested in their own on-going struggles to soften their stance. Japan accused America of being too ‘obsessed with its own views and opinions (and) may be said to be scheming for the extension of the war.’ Such an extension is exactly what the Pearl Harbor attack achieved. Millions more would be killed in what ended up being one of the deadliest wars in human history. Meanwhile, around 120,000 Japanese-Americans lost their livelihood and civil liberties, all because of an ethnic paranoia that is all too swiftly implemented during difficult times. In December 1944, Fred Korematsu lost his case against the US Government for impinging upon his basic rights as an American citizen in a 6-3 decision that ruled that Executive Order 9066 was constitutional. The decision implied a general understanding that might be summed up in the statement: In times of war, exceptions can be made to the assumption of innocence until proof of guilt.
Patrick Parr is lecturer at University of Southern California’s International Academy.
This Day in History May 24, 1941 – Bob Dylan is born
Okay, we know, he's not a native Rhode Islander, but perhaps his greatest moment as a musician came in Newport in 1965.
Singer-songwriter, "Song and Dance Man" Bob Dylan was born as Robert Zimmerman in 1941 to this day in Duluth, Minnesota. Dylan moved to New York City in 1961 and the rest is history. He quickly rose to the top of New York City's folk scene and began filling concert halls around the world.
Dylan made his debut playing solo acoustic guitar at the Newport Folk Festival on July 26, 1963, and returned to the event the following two summers. It was in July 1965, when he came on stage with an electric guitar and a rock band behind him that he shocked the audience of the folk festival. They then launched into "Maggie's Farm", a fast-paced rocker for the sound of cheers and boo .
T here is more than enough debate on how the crowd reacted to that performance, we will leave it to the dialanologists to dispose of. His later career was full of controversies and achievements, including Grammy Awards and Nobel Prizes, numerous albums, box sets, reissues, and more.
Love him or hate him, there is no doubt that his imprint in the music world is well established, and he will go down as one of the most popular songwriters in history by far. To celebrate, we are sharing some old videos of Bob Dylan at the Newport Folk Festival.