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My girlfriend recently showed me a 1908 yearbook in which several women are marked as playing "Poos-ball" or "Poosball." An internet search for this reveals mostly misspellings of "Foosball," however, if the search is specific enough, the most common relevant results lead back to this same high school in Cincinnati. An example and, a photo of the "A grade Girls' Poos Ball team"! The question, of course, is what is Poos Ball? By the ball size, seems like soccer, volleyball, basketball, and water polo are the best bets. All four were invented prior to 1908, though the latter three sports would have been relatively new. However, there is no mention on the internet of any of these being formerly named Poosball! Thoughts?
Apparently, Poosball was an indoor game similar to basketball. It was also known as center ball and captain ball.
According to Volume 30 of Mind and Body (1923) it was invented by Dr. E. A. Poos in 1890 while at the Woodward High School in Cincinnati. Dr Poos wrote a booklet about the game, but I don't have access to its contents.
The game is also mentioned in:
- Volume 1 of Rural Manhood (1910)
- The official handbook of the Cincinnati public schools athletic league (1910)
- The 1918 Hughes High School Annual
- The Playground Book: Cincinnati Playgrounds, Under Direction of the Board of Education and the Board of Park Commissioners (1918)
Scroll down to where it begins with CAPTAINBALL in Mind and Body or the original version of centerball.
I'm guessing this is what the game has turned into. I'm not finding any American references to the game any longer. But some overseas countries seem to like it. Here are the rules/How To Play
1900s: Sports and Games
Just like today, Americans were sports crazy in the first decade of the century. The sports of baseball, basketball, football, and boxing all expanded in popularity. The Olympics became an international spectacle of sports. Not content to remain spectators, Americans participated in bowling, golf, and lawn tennis.
Baseball had grown in popularity throughout the nineteenth century and was dominated at the beginning of the decade by the eight-team National League. The American League was formed in 1900 to challenge the National League. By 1903, the two leagues began to cooperate and play games against each other. Attendance at professional baseball games boomed in the decade, growing from 3.6 million in 1901 to 7.2 million in 1910. Fans across America became obsessed with the World Series, which pitted the American League and National League champions against each other. Until 1947, professional baseball was segregated, which meant that black players could not play in the major leagues. Undaunted, African Americans formed their own baseball leagues. Several of the players established reputations that rivaled those of white baseball greats like Ty Cobb (1886–1961).
College football was the second most popular sport in the nation and the dominant sport in colleges throughout the nation. The University of Michigan was the dominant team of the decade, rolling up a 55–1–1 record between 1901 and 1905. Michigan defeated Stanford in the first Rose Bowl game in 1902, setting the stage for major bowl contests between the top football teams. College football was controversial, however its extreme violence sometimes led to the death of players, and some teams kept players on the roster (list of participants) even when they were not students. College football was reformed in 1906, setting the stage for the modern rules that still govern football today.
The most controversial sport of the decade was boxing. Often conducted without gloves, boxing matches could be bloody affairs. Boxing was outlawed in many states and reformed in most others. But the so-called sport of gentlemen had its fans, and professional boxing matches, especially in the heavyweight class, drew a great deal of attention. No boxer drew more attention than Jack Johnson (1878–1946), who became the first African American to hold the heavyweight title when he defeated Tommy Burns (1881–1955) in 1908. Racist white fight fans were outraged, and they searched for a "Great White Hope" to defeat Johnson. But Johnson did not lose his title until 1915.
Invented in 1891, basketball was in its infancy in the first decade of the century. It was played first in YMCA clubs and Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) leagues and was soon taken up by colleges. By 1908, the University of Chicago played the University of Pennsylvania in the first collegiate national championship game. Professional basketball also existed, but it would be years before pro basketball drew much attention.
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Ancient civilizations Edit
Before each ancient Olympic Games there was a separate women's athletic event held at the same stadium in Olympia, the Heraean Games, dedicated to the goddess Hera. Myth held that the Heraea was founded by Hippodameia, the wife of the king who founded the Olympics.  According to E. Norman Gardiner:
At the festival there were races for maidens of various ages. Their course was 500 feet, or one-sixth less than the men's stadium. The maidens ran with their hair down their backs, a short tunic reaching just below the knee, and their right shoulder bare to the breast. The victors received crowns of olive and a share of the heifer sacrificed to Hera. They had, too, the right of setting up their statues in the Heraeum. 
Although married women were excluded from the Olympics even as spectators, Cynisca won an Olympic game as owner of a chariot (champions of chariot races were owners not riders), as did Euryleonis, Belistiche, Zeuxo, Encrateia and Hermione, Timarete, Theodota and Kassia.
After the classical period, there was some participation by women in men's athletic festivals.  Women in Sparta began to practice the same athletic exercises that men did, exhibiting the qualities of Spartan soldiers. Plato even supported women in sports by advocating running and sword-fighting for women. 
Notably, cultural representations of a pronounced female physicality were not limited to sport in Ancient Greece and can also be found in representations of a group of warrioresses known as the Amazons.
Early modern Edit
During the Song, Yuan, and Ming dynasties, women played in professional Cuju teams.  
The first Olympic games in the modern era, which were in 1896 were not open to women, but since then the number of women who have participated in the Olympic games have increased dramatically. 
19th and early 20th centuries Edit
The educational committees of the French Revolution (1789) included intellectual, moral, and physical education for both girls and boys. With the victory of Napoleon less than twenty years later, physical education was reduced to military preparedness for boys and men. In Germany, the physical education of GutsMuths (1793) included girl's education. This included the measurement of performances of girls. This led to women's sport being more actively pursued in Germany than in most other countries.  When the Fédération Sportive Féminine Internationale was formed as an all women's international organization it had a German male vice-president in addition to German international success in elite sports.
Women's sports in the late 1800s focused on correct posture, facial and bodily beauty, muscles, and health. 
Prior to 1870, activities for women were recreational rather than sport-specific in nature. They were noncompetitive, informal, rule-less they emphasized physical activity rather than competition.  Sports for women before the 20th century placed more emphasis on fitness rather than the competitive aspects we now associate with all sports. 
In 1916 the Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) held its first national championship for women (in swimming), [ citation needed ]  In 1923 the AAU also sponsored the First American Track & Field championships for women. Earlier that year the Women's Amateur Athletic Association (WAAA) held the first WAAA Championships.
Few women competed in sports in Europe and North America before the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, as social changes favored increased female participation in society as equals with men. Although women were technically permitted to participate in many sports, relatively few did. There was often disapproval of those who did.
"Bicycling has done more to emancipate women than anything else in the world." Susan B. Anthony said "I stand and rejoice every time I see a woman ride on a wheel. It gives women a feeling of freedom and self-reliance."
The modern Olympics had female competitors from 1900 onward, though women at first participated in considerably fewer events than men. Women first made their appearance in the Olympic Games in Paris in 1900. That year, 22 women competed in tennis, sailing, croquet, equestrian, and golf. 
The International Olympic Committee founder Pierre de Coubertin described women's sports "impratical, uninteresting, unaesthetic, and we are not afraid to add: incorrect".  However, the 6th IOC Congress in Paris 1914 decided that a woman's medal had formally the same weight as a man's in the official medal table. This left the decisions about women's participation to the individual international sports federations.  Concern over the physical strength and stamina of women led to the discouragement of female participation in more physically intensive sports, and in some cases led to less physically demanding female versions of male sports. Thus netball was developed out of basketball and softball out of baseball.
In response to the lack of support for women's international sport the Fédération Sportive Féminine Internationale was founded in France by Alice Milliat. This organization initiated the Women's Olympiad (held 1921, 1922 and 1923) and the Women's World Games, which attracted participation of nearly 20 countries and was held four times (1922, 1926, 1930 and 1934).  In 1924 the 1924 Women's Olympiad was held at Stamford Bridge in London. The International Olympic Committee began to incorporate greater participation of women at the Olympics in response. The number of Olympic women athletes increased over five-fold in the period, going from 65 at the 1920 Summer Olympics to 331 at the 1936 Summer Olympics.  
Most early women's professional sports leagues foundered. This is often attributed to a lack of spectator support. Amateur competitions became the primary venue for women's sports. Throughout the mid-twentieth century, Communist countries dominated many Olympic sports, including women's sports, due to state-sponsored athletic programs that were technically regarded as amateur. The legacy of these programs endured, as former Communist countries continue to produce many of the top female athletes. Germany and Scandinavia also developed strong women's athletic programs in this period.
A Spartan woman running. The bare right breast is indicative of her being an athlete.
Fraulein Kussinn and Mrs. Edwards boxing, 1912.
A camogie team posing with their hurling sticks, around 1915.
Young women wearing swimming competition medals, around 1920.
Fencer Sibyl Marston holding a foil.
Edith Cummings was the first woman athlete to appear on the cover of Time magazine, a major step in women's athletic history.
United States Edit
Implementation and regulation of Title IX Edit
In 1972 the United States Congress passed the Title IX legislation as a part of the additional Amendment Act to the 1964 Civil Rights Act.  Title IX states that: "no person shall on the basis of sex, be excluded from participating in, be denied benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any educational programs or activities receiving federal financial assistance. "  in other words, Title IX prohibits gender discrimination in schools that receive federal funds through grants, scholarships, or other support for students. The law states that federal funds can be withdrawn from a school engaging in intentional gender discrimination in the provision of curriculum, counseling, academic support, or general educational opportunities this includes interscholastic or varsity sports.  This law from the Education Act requires that both male and female athletes have equal facilities and equal benefits. The equal benefits are the necessities such as equal equipment, uniforms, supplies, training, practice, quality in coaches and opponents, awards, cheerleaders and bands at the game.  In 1979, there was a policy interpretation that offered three ways in which schools could be compliant with Title IX it became known as the "three-part test".
- Providing athletic participation opportunities that are substantially proportionate to the student enrollment. This prong of the test is satisfied when participation opportunities for men and women are "substantially proportionate" to their respective undergraduate enrollment.
- Demonstrating a continual expansion of athletic opportunities for the underrepresented sex. This prong of the test is satisfied when an institution has a history and continuing practice of program expansion that is responsive to the developing interests and abilities of the underrepresented sex (typically female).
- Accommodating the interest and ability of the underrepresented sex. This prong of the test is satisfied when an institution is meeting the interests and abilities of its female students even where there are disproportionately fewer females than males participating in sports.
Room for improvement Edit
Although schools only have to be compliant with one of the three prongs, a 1999 study by Sigelman and Wahlbeck found that many schools are "nowhere near compliance".  Many schools attempt to achieve compliance through the first prong however, in order to achieve that compliance schools cut men's programs, which is not the way the OCR wanted compliance achieved.  Equity is not the only way to be compliant with Title IX athletic departments need to show that they are making efforts to achieve parity in participation, treatment, and athletic financial assistance. 
According to research done by National Women's Law Center in 2011, 4500 public high schools across the nation have extremely high gender inequality and are violating the Title IX laws.  According to further research done by the Women's Law Center, schools with a high number of minority students and a greater number of people of color mainly in southern states had a much higher rate of gender disparity. There is also a huge disparity regarding sport related scholarships for men and women, with men getting 190 million more in funding than women.  This pattern has persisted over a long period of time as, most colleges focus on their male athletics team and plow more money into them. This disparity shows the link between race and gender, and how it plays a significant role in the hierarchy of sports. 
Effect of Title IX on women's sports Edit
Title IX did have an effect on women's sports. This bill gave women athletes the grounds to help support the stance that women deserved the respect and consideration as having their sports be serious, just as men's sports are taken seriously. This mandate did not go into action right away, but had been talked about enough that people knew what was to come. There was great anticipation for it, however, which helped gain coverage by media just in time for when the bill was mandated to be followed. The involvement in women's sports spiked after Title IX was put into place this was most shown in high school level sports as well as collegiate.  Title IX's effect on women was not just to those who were participating in a professional or intermediate way. Women were now able to view themselves as having the ability to compete. Not only could high school students, college students, or professional athletes feel secure in being a woman and playing, but women who did not see themselves in a more "serious athlete" light could now feel empowered to compete. This includes those young and old women who wanted to compete and play but never were able to or felt that they could. This bill only allowed for instituting that there be equal treatment and opportunity in sports no matter the sex of a person, but of course there would still need to be an attitude change from society, fans of sport, and those participating in sport. This bill allowed for those women to feel they were equal and then go and show just how great they were. 
Participation in sports Edit
The main objective of Title IX is to make sure there is equal treatment in sports and school, regardless of sex, in a federally funded program. It was also used to provide protection to those who are being discriminated due to their gender.  However, Title IX is most commonly associated with its impact on athletics and more specifically the impact it has had on women's participation in athletics at every age. Title IX has allowed women and girls in educational institutions to increase their opportunity in different sports they are able to play now.  Today [ when? ] there are more females participating in athletics than ever before. As of the 2007–2008 school year, females made up 41% of the participants in college athletics.  To see the growth of women's sports, consider the difference in participation before the passing of Title IX and today. In 1971–1972 there were 294,015 females participating in high school athletics and in 2007–2008 there were over three million females participating, meaning there has been a 940% increase in female participation in high school athletics. 
In 1971–1972 there were 29,972 females participating in college athletics and in 2007–2008 there were 166,728 females participating, a 456% increase in female participation in college athletics.  In 1971, less than 300,000 females played in high school sports. After the law was passed many females started to get involved in sports. By 1990, eighteen years later, 1.9 million female high school students were playing sports.  Increased participation in sports has had a direct impact on other areas of women's lives these effects can be seen in women's education and employment later on in life a 2010 study found that the changes set in motion by Title IX explained about 20 percent of the increase in women's education and about 40 percent of the rise in employment for 25-to-34-year-old women.  This is not to say that all women who are successful later on in life played sports, but it is saying that women who did participate in athletics received benefits in their education and employment later on in life. 
In 1971, fewer than 295,000 girls participated in high school varsity athletics, accounting for just 7 percent of all varsity athletes in 2001, that number leaped to 2.8 million, or 41.5 percent of all varsity athletes, according to the National Coalition for Women and Girls in Education.  In 1966, 16,000 females competed in intercollegiate athletics. By 2001, that number jumped to more than 150,000, accounting for 43 percent of all college athletes. In addition, a 2008 study of intercollegiate athletics showed that women's collegiate sports had grown to 9,101 teams, or 8.65 per school. The five most frequently offered college sports for women are, in order: (1) basketball, 98.8% of schools have a team, (2) volleyball, 95.7%, (3) soccer, 92.0%, (4) cross country, 90.8%, and (5) softball, 89.2%. Since 1972, women have also competed in the traditional male sports of wrestling, weightlifting, rugby, and boxing. An article in the New York Times found that there are lasting benefits for women from Title IX: participation in sports increased education as well as employment opportunities for girls.  Furthermore, the athletic participation by girls and women spurred by Title IX was associated with lower obesity rates. No other public health program can claim similar success. 
Participation in leadership roles Edit
Although female participation in sports has increased due to Title IX, there has not been a similar effect in terms of women holding coaching or other managerial positions in sports. Most sport teams or institutions, regardless of gender, are managed by male coaches and managers.  For example, according to 2016 data, 33% of WNBA teams are led by women coaches or managers.  The International Olympic Committee also consists of 20% female members.  The data presented also showed that 15% of athletic directors in colleges nationwide were females, and that number is much less in the southern states.  There are various reasons that have been suggested to account for this trend. Messner and Bozada-Deas (2009) suggest traditional gender roles may play a role and that society's historical division of labor leads to men volunteering as team coaches and women volunteering as team "moms".  Everhart and Chelladurai (1998) show that this phenomenon may be part of a larger cycle --- girls who are coached by men growing up are less likely to view themselves as coaches when they are adults, and so the number of female coaches decreases, meaning more girls are coached by men.  
Sports are a high priority in Canadian culture, but women were long relegated to second-class status. There were also regional differences, with the eastern provinces emphasizing a more feminine "girls rule" game of basketball, while the Western provinces preferred identical rules. Girls' and women's sport have traditionally been slowed down by a series of factors: both historically have low levels of interest and participation. There were very few women in leadership positions in academic administration, student affairs or athletics and not many female coaches. The media strongly emphasized men's sports as a demonstration of masculinity, suggesting that women seriously interested in sports were crossing gender lines with the male sports establishment actively hostile. Staunch feminists dismissed sports and thought of them as unworthy of their support. Women's progress was uphill they first had to counter the common notion that women's bodies were restricted and delicate and that vigorous physical activity was dangerous. These notions where first challenged by the "new women" around 1900. These women started with bicycling they rode into new gender spaces in education, work, and suffrage. The 1920s marked a breakthrough for women, including working-class young women in addition to the pioneering middle class sportswomen. 
Female athletic dominance grew during the Weimar period in Germany with several factors contributing to this new era. Many opportunities made it possible for women to join sports programs and push boundaries within society. These included the enrollment of women in German universities, the rise in female employment, as well as involvement in war industries. All of these are examples of economic changes due to World War I. Women's fashion reflected the changes that women perceived in themselves. Women's magazines showed them in sporting outfits as they were motivated to create an appearance that featured them as healthy and fit. The same women were known at night in more fashionable outfits, displaying femininity. Women were becoming more and more competitive in sport, which contributed to the threat they caused to masculinization. The competitive sports that women began participating in, included swimming, ski-jumping, and soccer. Furthermore, the participation of sports often viewed as masculine, including boxing and weightlifting, drew attention to the press. The male elite felt at risk for being taken over in terms of superiority. To cope with the growing threat of women dominance, came a rise in satirical exaggerations of women that downplayed their role in the athletic world. For example, pictures of women in sporting attire were produced that brought a negative image to their bodies and participation in sport. Women began to emphasize their sexuality and this drew attention towards growing athleticism. This allowed women to grow and gain more publicity and attention to their place in sports. 
United Kingdom Edit
The United Kingdom has produced a range of major international sports including: association football, rugby (union and league), cricket, netball, darts, golf, tennis, table tennis, badminton, squash, bowls, rounders, modern rowing, hockey, boxing, snooker, billiards, and curling.  In the 19th century, women primarily participated in the "new games" which included golf, lawn tennis, cycling, and hockey. Now, women also participate at a professional/international level in football, rugby, cricket, and netball.
Since the late 1980s, Women in Sport,  a non-profit organization, has hoped to transform sport for the benefit of women and girls in the UK. Based in London, the organization's mission is to "champion the right of every woman and girl in the UK to take part in, and benefit from, sport: from the field of play to the boardroom, from early years and throughout her life".
The Henley Royal Regatta, just recently allowed women to compete at this prestigious rowing race. Although, the benefits that men receive at this race versus what women receive is still drastically different, there is progress within allowing women to compete competitively. 
1960s to 2010s Edit
Before the 1960s, in the early 1800s women romped, skated, played ball games and some even boxed. It wasn't until the late 1900s when women started participating in organized sports. After the civil war wealthy women started playing country club sports such as golf. 
Over the last fifty years, women's sports have developed substantially and made significant progress.
Tennis has been a popular professional female sport from the 1970s onward, and it provided the occasion for a symbolic "battle of the sexes" between Billie Jean King and Bobby Riggs, which King won, thus enhancing the profile of female athletics.  Serena and Venus Williams were able to bring a strong female representation to sports. The sisters were both very successful with their accomplishments playing tennis and were able to set a strong positive model for other female tennis players and athletes as a whole. The two faced many obstacles along their journey to success, as they are African American women successfully conquering a predominately white sport. They were critiqued for their personal upbringings, their muscular builds, and the clothes they wore. James McKay and Helen Johnson described them as "Ghetto Cinderellas," because of those very factors. Although they were not like other females playing sports, the women were able to bring a powerful new meaning and image to female athletics. Facing the challenges of racial and gender discrimination, the sisters enhanced and modeled a strong representation of both. 
Despite the success of women's professional tennis in the 1970s, women's professional team sports did not achieve prominence until the 1990s, particularly in basketball and football (soccer), when the WNBA was formed and the first Women's World Cups and women's Olympic soccer matches were held. 
In 1999, at the 1999 FIFA Women's World Cup Final in Pasadena, California, after scoring the fifth kick in the penalty shootout to give the United States the win over China in the final game, Brandi Chastain celebrated by spontaneously taking off her jersey and falling to her knees in a sports bra.  While removing a jersey in celebration of a goal was common in men's soccer, it was highly unusual in women's football at the international level.  The image of her celebration has been considered one of the more famous and controversial photographs of a woman celebrating an athletic victory.    In 2019, it was announced that a statue of Chastain's celebration would be displayed at the Rose Bowl to commemorate the twenty-year anniversary of the team's win. 
Today, women and girls compete professionally and as amateurs in virtually every major sport, though girls' participation in sports may be higher in the United States than in other places like Western Europe and Latin America.  Additionally, the level of girls' participation typically decreases when it comes to the more violent contact sports in which boys overwhelmingly outnumber girls, particularly football,  wrestling,  and boxing. [ citation needed ] (Some leagues for girls do exist, however, such as the Utah Girls Football League and Professional Girl Wrestling Association.) These typical non-participation habits may slowly be evolving as more women participate in stereotypical male sports for example, Katie Hnida became the first woman ever to score points in a Division I NCAA American football game when she kicked two extra points for the University of New Mexico in 2003. 
Heather Watson and Fu Yuanhui broke one of the last taboos in women's sport when both openly admitted they were menstruating, Watson after a self-described poor performance in a tennis match in 2015, and Fu at the Olympics in Rio de Janeiro.  
Professional sports refers to sports in which athletes are paid for their performance. Opportunities for women to play professional sports vary by country. Some women's professional sports leagues are directly affiliated with a men's professional sports league (like the WNBA  ) others are independently owned and operated (like the NWHL  ).
While women today do have the opportunity to play professional sports, the pay for women's professional sports is significantly lower than for men's,   a phenomenon known as the gender pay gap in sports. Many female professional athletes hold second jobs in addition to playing their respective sports due to their low salaries.    Female professional athletes play in lower-quality, smaller facilities than male professional athletes and generally have lower fan attendance at games or matches.   Many women's professional sports are not regularly broadcast on live television like many men's professional sports,  but are live-streamed on platforms such as Twitter  or Twitch  instead.
Not only do female athletes themselves face inequality, but so too do women looking to enter the business side of sports. Research has shown that women occupy leadership positions in sports business at a lower rate than men.  When women do occupy the same positions as men, they may be paid less,   although some research has shown revenue-specific variables may be more relevant than gender-specific variables when examining compensation levels. 
Although several professional women's sports leagues have been established throughout the world in the post-Title IX era, they are generally behind in terms of exposure, funding, and attendance compared to the men's teams.    However, there are notable exceptions. The 2015 Women's World Cup final was the most-watched soccer game ever in the United States.  And in 2017, Portland Thorns FC of the NWSL had higher average attendance than several men's professional teams, including 15 NBA teams, 13 NHL teams, and 1 MLB team.  The Thorns' 2019 season saw an even higher average attendance of 20,098.  This was higher than all but one of the 30 NBA teams in the 2018–19 season,  all but three of the 31 NHL teams in the 2018–19 season,  15 of the 24 MLS teams in the 2019 season,  and 6 of the 30 MLB teams in the 2019 season. 
Active women's professional leagues and associations Edit
|Country||Sport||League or Association Name|
|Australia||Australian rules football||AFL Women's|
|Australia||Basketball||Women's National Basketball League|
|Australia||Netball||Suncorp Super Netball|
|Australia||Association football||Westfield W-League|
|Australia||Cricket||Women's Big Bash League|
|China||Basketball||Women's Chinese Basketball Association|
|China||Golf||China LPGA Tour|
|England||Association football||FA Women's Super League|
|England||Rugby union||Premier 15s |
|Europe||Golf||Ladies European Tour|
|France||Association football||Division 1 Féminine|
|India||Cricket||Women's T20 Challenge|
|Japan||Golf||LPGA of Japan Tour|
|Mexico||Association football||Liga MX Femenil|
|New Zealand||Netball||ANZ Premiership|
|Russia||Basketball||Russian Women's Basketball Premier League|
|South Korea||Golf||LPGA of Korea Tour|
|Turkey||Volleyball||Turkish Women's Volleyball League|
|USA||Basketball||Women's National Basketball Association|
|USA||Golf||Ladies Professional Golf Association|
|USA||Golf||Legends Tour (age 45 and over)|
|USA||Golf||Symetra Tour (second-tier tour)|
|USA||Ice hockey||National Women's Hockey League|
|USA||Lacrosse||Women's Professional Lacrosse League|
|USA||Lacrosse||United Women's Lacrosse League|
|USA||Association football||National Women's Soccer League|
|USA||Softball||National Pro Fastpitch|
|Worldwide||Tennis||Women's Tennis Association|
The 2012 London Olympics were the first games of their kind in which women competed in every sport.  The fight for women to gain equality on national levels and in professional leagues, in terms of pay and better funding, has continued however sports still remain dominated by men, financially and globally. Gender remains a selective and primary factor in terms of determining if women are able-bodied as men and if they should get the same treatment in terms of sports.  It is often said [ by whom? ] that sports are a thing for men, and has become a stereotypical notion within society. Negative gender-based characteristics such as masculinity and femininity have been described as the deciding factor in order to play sports, and has often been held as justifiable dismissing sports equity.  Although there are various purposes and outcomes of organized teamsport participation in Western cultures, a consistent finding is that sport is principally organized around the political project of physically and symbolically elevating men over women . There was evidence throughout the study that notions of audience interest or preference were based on personal beliefs and assumptions—rather than evidence or research—and in some cases it was clear that these beliefs and assumptions still prioritized the coverage of men's professional sports. 
The pay gap in women sports is a controversial issue. [ citation needed ] Women athletes, in their respective fields, are often get paid far less than their male counterparts, and this has been true for a long time. The difference between the American men's and women's soccer teams' salaries serves as an example regarding pay inequality. Women on the U.S national team earned $99,000 per year, while men earned $263,320 if they were to win 20 exhibition matches.  There is a substantial gap in rewards in regards to winning the FIFA World Cup. The German men's national team earned 35 million dollars, while the American women's national team earned 2 million dollars after winning the World Cup.  The battle in equality for fair pay divulges in to other sports in which men earn far more than women. Golf is another sport which has a significant rising female presence. In 2014, the PGA Tour awarded US$340 million in prize money for men's tournaments, compared to 62 million dollars awarded to the LPGA Tour.  Basketball is another sport which has surged in popularity in the last few decades and has significant female presence. In the United States, the NBA organizes top-level professional basketball competition for both sexes, with men playing in the NBA proper and women in the WNBA. As of 2021, a WNBA player's minimum salary is $57,000,  while an NBA player's minimum salary is $898,310.  An average NBA player makes over $5 million while an average WNBA player makes $72,000. 
In September 2018, the World Surf League announced equal pay for both male and female athletes for all events. This decision has contributed to the conversation in the world of professional sports surrounding equality .
Most people have a bad rep when it comes to watching women's sports and that effect can come from social media. Social media is where everything can start when it comes to hearing about sports in general. That is the way we hear most of the time. We get all of our updates from social media.
This is why social media is where we can start to change this within the media. If there is more coverage for women's sports in social media there may be a change made. We know that most people pay attention to social media so why can we not start there and work our way up. 
In September 2015, the Australian women's national soccer team (nicknamed the Matildas) announced that it had canceled a sold-out tour of the United States due to a dispute with the Football Federation of Australia (FFA) over their pay. Their salary was below minimum wage levels in Australia. The Matildas requested health care, maternity leave, and improved travel arrangements, as well as an increased salary. The players also said that their low salaries forced them to remain living at home, since they could not afford rent, and their strict training schedule meant they were unable to get another job.  
In September 2017, a new pay deal was announced for players in Australia's national soccer league, the W-League. The deal included an increase in wages, an increase in the salary cap, improved medical standards, and a formal maternity policy. Some commentators have attributed the success of the new W-League deal to the Matildas' boycott in 2015.  
In November 2019, the FFA announced a new contract with the union Professional Footballers Australia (PFA) in which the Matildas and the men's national team (the Caltex Socceroos) will receive equal shares of total player revenue and equal resources. In addition, the guaranteed minimum salary for a player on the Matildas will increase as a result of this deal. 
One of the earliest examples of women's sports in modern China was Qiu Jin. Qiu Jin, a Chinese revolutionary during the late 1800s and early 1900s, trained women to be soldiers alongside men in sports societies. They were taught fencing, riding, and gymnastics.  According to Susan Bronwell, the most important moment for women's sports in China came in 1981 with a Chinese victory in the 1981 FIVB Women's World Cup in Tokyo, Japan. This victory made the female volleyball players household names in China, though the victory was portrayed as the work of leading male government officials like Ma Qiwei, He Long, and Zhou Enlai, who helped contribute at various stages to the success of the team. The victory symbolized a growth of women's sports in China after the Cultural Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s, wherein many athletes were suppressed: 
In the years following the women's volleyball victory, female athletes generally had greater success in international sports than males, and so they became the symbolic figureheads in the revival of Chinese nationalism.
Contemporary Chinese sports teams are noted for their wide breadth of participation by female athletes, specifically in the Olympic Games.   A Herfindahl Index (a measure often used in economics to show the degree of concentration when individuals are classified by type, and a lower number indicates higher diversity) showing Female Participation in the 2012 Olympics indicated China's female Olympic delegation, the fourth largest present, to be the second most spread out across all events at 0.050, compared to higher numbers from over 190 other delegations. The same index showed the ratio of women to men to be 7 to 10. 213 total female athletes participated.  In total, approximately 60% of Chinese Olympic gold medals were earned by female athletes over the last 8 Olympic games.  Challenges to equality remain such as media representation. According to Yu Chia Chen, female Asian athletes receive much less coverage than their male counterparts.  Another report indicates Chinese girls and women are also less likely to be exposed to sports programming on television. 
In October 2017, the Irish Rugby Football Union (IRFU) advertised an available position for head coach of the Irish women's national rugby team. The job was advertised as "part-time," "casual," and available on six-month basis.  Players expressed their disagreement with the decision, believing it was a sign that the IRFU was disrespecting and not prioritizing the women's game. In response to this announcement, the players highlighted what they perceived as the IRFU's lack of commitment to the long-term development of the women's game by wearing bracelets with "#Legacy" written on them for games with their club teams in the All Ireland League. 
The Jamaican women's national soccer team (nicknamed the Reggae Girlz) participated in the 2019 FIFA Women's World Cup. This was the first Women's World Cup the country had qualified for, and the country was also the first Caribbean country to ever qualify.  However, in September 2019, members of the team, including Khadija Shaw and Allyson Swaby, posted a graphic on Instagram with captions stating that they had not been paid by the Jamaica Football Federation (JFF) for nine months of work. They announced that the team would not participate in any future tournaments until they received payment.  JFF President Michael Ricketts later announced that the team would be paid by the end of September.  In October 2019, the Reggae Girlz began playing again, and they won their group in the Qualification Tournament for the 2020 CONCACAF Women's Olympic Qualifying Competition. 
The Jamaican national netball team (nicknamed the Sunshine Girls) is ranked 4th in the world, as of July 2019.  However, the team has not been well-funded, and had to resort to crowdfunding to attend the 2019 Netball World Cup.  After receiving support from sponsors, the Sunshine Girls were able to go to the tournament, where they placed 5th overall. 
Muslim world Edit
Muslim women are less likely to take part in sport than Western non-Muslims.  This is particularly so for women in Arab societies. The traditions of Islamic modesty in dress and requirements for women's sport to take place in a single-sex environment make sports participation more difficult for devout female adherents. The lack of availability of suitably modest sports clothing and sports facilities that allow women to play in private contributes to the lack of participation. Cultural norms of women's roles and responsibilities towards the family may also be a source of discouragement from time-consuming sports practice.  
However, Islamic tenets and religious texts suggest that women's sports in general should be promoted and are not against the values of the religion. The Quranic statements that followers of Islam should be healthy, fit and make time for leisure are not sex-specific. The prophet Muhammad is said to have raced his wife Aisha on several occasions, with Aisha beating him the first couple of times. Correspondingly, some scholars have proposed that Muslim women's lack of engagement with sport is due to cultural or societal reasons, rather than strictly religious ones.  
However, besides religious testaments, there are many barriers for Muslim women in relation to sports participation. A significant barrier to Muslim women's sports participation is bans on the Islamic headscarf, commonly known as the hijab.  FIFA instituted such a ban in 2011, preventing the Iranian women's national football team from competing.  They have since repealed the ban, but other organizations, including FIBA, maintain such regulations.  At the same time, many Muslim female athletes have achieved significant success in athletic competitions. Some have also used sports towards their own empowerment, working for women's rights, education, and health and wellbeing.   
Iranian women were banned from attending a volleyball game and an Iranian girl was arrested for attending a match. Iran was given the right to host the International Beach Volleyball tournament, and many Iranian women were looking forward to attending the event. However, when the women tried to attend the event, they were disallowed, and told it was forbidden to attend by the FIVB. The women took to social media to share their outrage however the Federation of International Beach volleyball refuted the accusations, saying it was a misunderstanding.  This is one of the instances of unfair treatment of women, trying to participate in supporting their teams in Iran.
In October 2018 Iran announced that, after 40 years, it would allow women to enter sport arenas.  On September 22, 2019, the Iranian authorities assured FIFA that women would be able to attend the October qualifier of 2022 World Cup in Tehran, stated Gianni Infantino. 
In 2016, the Nigerian women's national soccer team, known as the Super Falcons, won the 2016 Africa Women Cup of Nations. The players alleged that they had not received their earned bonuses from winning the tournament owed to them by the Nigeria Football Federation (NFF). The NFF promised that it would pay them, but said the "money [was] not readily available at the moment." In response, players engaged in a sit-in at their hotel as well as publicly demonstrated outside Nigeria's National Assembly. 
In 2019, the Super Falcons participated in the 2019 Women's World Cup and were eliminated from the tournament in the Round of 16. Following their elimination, the players engaged in another sit-in at their hotel, refusing to leave Paris until the NFF paid them the bonuses and daily allowances they had earned both from the World Cup as well as from other matches played in 2016 and 2017. 
Norwegian sports are shaped by the values associated with them. For example, aggression generally is associated with males and being personable, with females. However, in terms of Norwegian handball, a study done by the Norwegian School of Sports and Sciences shows that gender is disregarded when the sport is covered in the media. The same study revealed that Women's handball is covered and followed as equally if not more than the men's team. In contrast to international handball coverage, the Norwegian coverage of Men's and Women's handball are discussed in the media using the same or similar verbiage. While they are especially noticeable in handball, equality and opportunity in Norwegian sports is not limited to the handball. Many top-female athletes from a number of sports have come from Norway. The act of playing or coaching were described slightly differently but categorized as successful using similar terms despite the gender of the coach or the player. 
Ada Hegerberg is a highly skilled and decorated Norwegian soccer player, having won numerous Champions League and Division 1 Féminine titles with French club Olympique Lyonnais. She also won the first-ever women's Ballon D'Or, a prestigious award given to the best soccer player in the world.  However, in 2017, she stopped playing with the Norwegian national team, citing unequal pay and conditions between the women's team and the men's team as her reason for stepping away from the team. She said she would no longer play for the national team until she felt that it was more respected by the Norwegian Football Federation and the culture surrounding women's soccer had improved, which meant she did not participate in the high-profile 2019 FIFA Women's World Cup. 
The Magna Carta for Women in the Philippines (Republic Act No. 9710.) mandates equal participation of women in sports among other non-sports related provisions. 
In the Philippines, basketball which is often referred to as the country's most popular sport is male-dominated although there are efforts to promote the sport to Filipino women. In 2020, the Women's National Basketball League became the country's first professional women's basketball league.  
Prior attempts to provide female players to play competitive basketball included the semi-professional Women's Philippine Basketball League which ran from 1998 to 1999, and in 2008. In 3x3 basketball, the men's professional league the Philippine Basketball Association, organized the short-lived PBA Women's 3x3 which was controversial for its haircut rules which barred women from sporting a "boy's cut". 
South Africa Edit
Between 2004 and 2008, the previously highly successful South African women's national soccer team, known as Banyana Banyana, began to struggle on the field due to a lack of a permanent coach. Members of the South African Football Association (SAFA) attributed the declining quality of play to the players' "lack of femininity" (Engh 2010), and the players were instructed to take etiquette classes and maintain stereotypical feminine hairstyles, as well as wear more feminine uniforms while playing. In response, players threatened to strike unless they were able to return to their preferred styles of dress. 
In 2018, Banyana Banyana was not paid the agreed-upon amount owed to them after qualifying for the 2018 Africa Women Cup of Nations (AWCON), and they protested by not returning their official national team uniforms.  In January 2019, the team was again not paid their stipends and bonuses, despite finishing in second place at AWCON. They threatened to strike by not attending interviews or team practices, as well as not playing in a game against the Dutch national team.  However, in May 2019, it was announced that Banyana Banyana would receive equal pay with the men's team heading into the 2019 FIFA Women's World Cup. 
In Sweden, public funds are mostly given to men's hockey and football, and the women's team are left without proper funding. In 2016, Al Jazeera published an article bringing the discrimination that female Swedish athletes face to light by mentioning the double standard put on female athletes in terms of having to work double and still not receive the recognition or pay of the men's teams. Sweden is recognized as being a feminist country, however the wage gap is significant between male and female athletes. In 2013, Swedish striker, Zlatan Ibrahimovic earned $16.7 million a year playing for Paris Saint-German, whereas Lotta Schellin who played for Lyon in France only earned $239,720. The wage gap is also evident among coaches. The difference in pay is evident in how male athletes and female athletes are able to spend their time between games. Women often have to work between training and games to make a living and to pay for their training camps, whereas men have that time to recuperate and relax men also don't pay to attend training camps. 
In August 2019, the Swedish women's national ice hockey team boycotted the team's training camp and the Five Nations Tournament.  In a movement they called #FörFramtiden (in English, "For the Future"), all 43 players invited to camp cited lack of equal pay as well as various instances of poor treatment by Svenska Ishockeyförbundet (the Swedish Ice Hockey Association, or SIF) toward the national team, including, but not limited to: 
- Team travel conditions – traveling by ferry instead of by plane to games arriving to games one day before a tournament began, without accounting for time differences and jet lag
- Team uniforms – players are provided men's clothing by SIF, not women's clothing
- Nutrition – players are provided expired products
- Lack of development – players allege that SIF has not adequately created a program to foster development of women's hockey at the youth level
The Four Nations Cup, originally scheduled for November 2019, was canceled by SIF due to the players' dispute with the federation. 
Following the boycott, it was announced in October 2019 that the players had reached a new agreement with the federation,  and that the team will begin training in November 2019 and play in a tournament against Switzerland, Finland, and Germany in December 2019. The new deal includes terms guaranteeing performance-based bonuses and additional compensation. 
United States Edit
Women make up 54% of enrollment at 832 schools that responded to an NCAA gender equity study in 2000 however, females at these institutions only account for 41% of the athletes. Before Title IX, 90% of women's college athletic programs were run by women, but by 1992 the number dropped to 42% since Title IX requires that there are equal opportunities for both genders.  This violates Title IX's premise that the ratio of female athletes to male athletes should be roughly equivalent to the overall proportion of female and male students.  Many of the issues today often revolve around the amount of money going into men's and women's sports. According to 2000–2001 figures, men's college programs still have many advantages over women's in the average number of scholarships (60.5%), operating expenses (64.5%), recruiting expenses (68.2%) and head coaching salaries (59.5%).  Other forms of inequality are in the coaching positions. Before Title IX, women coached 90% of women's teams in 1978 that percentage dropped to 58, and in 2004 it dropped even more to 44 percent.  In 1972, women administered 90 percent of women's athletic programs, and in 2004 this fell to 19 percent. Also in 2004, 18 percent of all women's programs had no women administrators.  In 2004, there were 3,356 administrative jobs in NCAA women's athletic programs and of those jobs, women held 35 percent of them. 
The fight for equality extends to the wallet. On March 30, 2016, five players from the U.S. women's soccer team filed a federal complaint of wage discrimination against U.S. Soccer, the governing body that pays both the men's and women's team.  The complaint argues that U.S. Soccer pays players on the women's team as little as forty percent of what it pays players on the men's team. This pay discrepancy exists despite the fact that the women's team has been much more successful in international competitions the women's team has won four Olympic gold medals and three of the last five Women's World Cups, while the men's team has never won either of these competitions. 
World conferences Edit
In 1994, the International Working Group on Women and Sport organized the first World Conference on Women and Sport in Brighton, United Kingdom, where the Brighton Declaration was published. The IWG hosted further world conferences every four years, with the result of the Windfoek Call for Action (1998), Montreal Tool Kit (2002) and Brighton Plus Helsinki 2014 Declaration (2014). The conferences pretend to "develop a sporting culture that enables and values the full involvement of women in every aspect of sport and physical activity", by "increas[ing] the involvement of women in sport at all levels and in all functions and roles". 
Media coverage for women's sports is significantly less than the coverage for men's sports. Substantial research indicates that women's sports and female athletes gain only a small fraction of sports media coverage worldwide. Research that has examined why this is the case suggested this can be attributed to three particular factors that govern sports newswork: the male-dominated sports newsroom, ingrained assumptions about readership, and the systematic, repetitive nature of sports news.  In 1989, a study was conducted that recorded and compared the amount of media coverage of men and women's sports on popular sports commentary shows.  Michael Messner and his team in 2010 analyzed three different two-week periods by recording the amount of time that the stories were on air and the content of the stories. After recording sports news and highlights, they wrote a quantitative description of what they saw and a qualitative description of the amount of time that story received. 
During that first year that the research was conducted in 1989, it was recorded that 5% of the sports segments were based on women's sports, compared to the 92% that were based on men's sports and the 3% that was a combination of both. In the late 1900s Women's Sports started to gain popularity in the media because of their talent in the Olympics.  In 1999, women's sports coverage reached an all-time high when it was recorded at 8.7%. It maintained its higher percentages until it reached an all-time low in 2009, decreasing to 1.6%. The researchers also measured the amount of time that women's sports were reported in the news ticker, the strip that displays information at the bottom of most news broadcasts. When recorded in 2009, 5% of ticker coverage was based on women's sports, compared to the 95% that was based on men's sports. These percentages were recorded in order to compare the amount of media coverage for each gender.
When researching the actual amount of time that women's sports stories were mentioned, they focused specifically on differences between the National Basketball Association (NBA) and the Women's National Basketball Association. They recorded two different time periods: when they were in season and when they were off-season. The WNBA had 8 stories, totaling 5:31 minutes, during their season, which was less than the NBA, which had a total of 72 stories, totaling approximately 65:51 minutes. During the off-season, the WNBA did not receive any stories or time on the ticker, while the NBA received a total of 81, which were approximately 50:15 minutes. When compared, the WNBA had a total of 8 stories and 5:31 minutes while the NBA had 153 stories and 1:56:06 hours. A recent study showed that in July, -The NBA summer league receives more coverage and attention than a regular season game in the WNBA.  The actual games had several differences in the way the games were presented. The findings were that WNBA games had lower sound quality, more editing mistakes, fewer views of the shot clock and fewer camera angles. There was less verbal commentary and visual statistics about the players throughout the games as well.  The quality of the stories has also significantly changed. In past studies, women were sexualized, portrayed as violent, or portrayed as girlfriends, wives and mothers. Female athletes were often included in gag stories that involved sexual dialogue or emphasized their bodies. In Australia, the wives of the men's cricket team members were given more media coverage than the players on the women's cricket team, who also had won more games than the men's rugby team.  In 2009, SportsCenter broadcast segments called "Her Story", which was a commentary that highlighted women's athletic careers. 
In newspapers articles, coverage on men's sports once again had a greater number of articles than women's sports in a ratio of 23–1. In 1990, a study was conducted that recorded and compared the amount of media coverage of men and women's sports on popular newspapers. They analyzed four different sports magazines for three months and recorded the number of women's sports stories that were featured and the content of the stories. Women's sports made up 3.5%, compared to the 81% of men's coverage. The lengths of these articles were 25–27% shorter than the length of men's articles.  There was an international frenzy in 2012 when the first woman that represented Saudi Arabia in the 2012 Olympics competed in track. That was the most women's sports coverage that there had been in several years.Women played 90 minutes of football, 80 minutes of rugby, 18 holes of golf and ran the same distance in a marathon as men. Exactly 12 months later, the newspapers returned to featuring 4% of articles on women's sports.  This same trend can be seen with regards to the FIFA World Cup. The 2015 Women's World Cup Final had an average of 25.4 million American viewers throughout the duration of the match, and peaked at 30.9 million viewers.  It was the most-viewed game of soccer ever in the United States–men's or women's–by a margin of almost 7 million viewers. Despite this jump in viewership of women's soccer in the U.S., television broadcasting of the women's professional soccer league in the U.S. remained much lower than that of the men's league. Fox Sports Network (the company that owns the rights to broadcast the National Women's Soccer League) broadcast 3 regular season NWSL games and 34 Major League Soccer regular-season games during the 2016 seasons. The dearth of coverage of women's sports is evidenced by the low number of segments (i.e., stories) in our sample. Of the 934 local network affiliate news segments (over 12 hr of broadcasts), 880 were on men's sports (or approximately 11½ hr), 22 segments (or nearly 18 min) were on gender-neutral sports (e.g., a horse race, coverage of the Los Angeles [LA] marathon, and a recreational sports event), and only 32 segments (about 23 min) featured women's sports. SportsCenter's numbers were similar. Of the 405 total SportsCenter segments in our sample (nearly 14 hr), 376 covered men's sports (slightly over 13 hr), 16 segments were on gender-neutral sports (just over 20 min), and only 13 segments featured women's sports (approximately 17 min). 
A recent article from the Wall Street Journal states "from 2016 to 2018, women's games generated about $50.8 million in revenue compared with $49.9 million for the men, according to U.S. soccer's audited financial statements  " (Bachman, 2019). These numbers contrasts the idea that women's sports are not entertaining enough for the viewer or typical fan by $1.9 million. This idea stems from the male dominated sports perspective, which constantly undermines the perception of quality, effort, and potential that women's soccer exhibits. However, we can see through the caliber of women's soccer displayed most recently within the Women's FIFA World Cup of 2019 that it was on par if not better than the level of play of their male counterparts. [ citation needed ] The U.S. Women's National Team scored 13 goals against Thailand in their opening match, the most goals scored in any World Cup match in history. Media outlets though may remain concerned that increased coverage of women's sport will lead to a reduction in audience draw and advertising revenue.
Amy Godoy-Pressland conducted a study that investigated the relationship between sports reporting and gender in Great Britain. She studied Great Britain's newspapers from January 2008 to December 2009 and documented how media coverage of men's sports and women's sports was fairly equal during the Olympics and then altered after the Olympics were over. "Sportswomen are disproportionately under-represented and the sheer quantity and quality of news items on sportsmen demonstrates how male athletes are represented as dominant and superior to females." She also documented how women's bodies were sexualized in photographs and written coverage, noting that the women featured were either nude, semi-nude, or wearing revealing clothing. "The sexualization of sportswomen in Sunday reporting is commonplace and aimed at the mostly male readership. It promotes the idea of female aesthetics over achievements, while the coverage of women not directly involved in sport misrepresents the place of women in sport and inferiorizes real sportswomen's achievements."  The media has the ability to create or prevent interest in women's sports. Excluding women's sports from the media makes it much less likely for young girls to have role models that are women athletes.  According to Tucker Center for Research on Girls & Women in Sport at the University of Minnesota 40% of all athletes in the United States are women but women's sports only receive about 4% of sports media coverage.  This amount of coverage has decreased in the last 20 years although there has been a major increase in women athletes.
Media coverage has slightly increased and this is mostly due to social networking. [ citation needed ] Social media has further exposed women sports out to the public world, and often at a much greater rate than traditional news media. Traditional media has also improved its coverage of women's sports through more exposure time and using better equipment to record the events. Recent research has shown that in the past twenty years, camera angles, slow motion replays, quality and graphics regarding the presentation of women sports has gradually improved.  However, mainstream media still is far behind in its showcasing of female sports in comparison to that of men's. A study has shown that ESPN, which began airing women NCAA tournament in 2003, aired eleven women tournament segments in comparison to one-hundred men's tournament segments.  ESPN and other sports outlets are airing more female-oriented sporting events however the length of the segments are very small. This representative data is showcases a main part of the minimal interaction the media has with women athletes. Media coverage of women sports in the United States has further justified the divisional hierarchy faced by women athletes in terms of popularity and coverage. Scholarly studies (Kane, M. J., LaVoi, N. M., Fink, J. S. (2013) also show that when women athletes were given the option to pick a photo of a picture that would increase respect for their sport, they picked an on-the-court competency picture. However, when women athletes were told to pick a picture that would increase interest in their sport, 47% picked a picture that sexualized the women athlete.  The UK is more representative than the United States with the BBC giving women's sports about 20% of their sports coverage (BBC spokesperson). Many women athletes in the UK do not see this as adequate coverage for the 36% of women who participate in sports.  NewsChain is the first commercial publisher totally dedicated to women's sport coverage based in the UK.
It is shown that only 5 percent of sports coverage on Sports Center is of women sport. 
There are some common sports injuries for which female athletes may be at a higher risk than male athletes.
Several studies have shown that female athletes are more likely to tear their anterior cruciate ligaments (ACLs) than male athletes.     There are several different theories about why women are more prone to this injury, but there is no consensus on one theory in particular. The difference in injury risk may be due to female-specific hormonal changes associated with the menstrual cycle, or due to different skeletal and muscular structures (like a wider pelvis, stronger quadriceps than hamstrings, or more elastic ligaments) that cause women to place more stress on and more easily stretch the ACL than men.    
Female athletes are also more prone to concussions than male athletes. They exhibit more visible symptoms of a concussion than male athletes and for a longer period of time than male athletes, a phenomenon known as the "concussion gap."   However, there is no consensus on the reason women are more prone to concussions than men or experience symptoms differently. Some theories have been that women have smaller, more breakable nerve fibers in their brains,  that their necks are weaker and so their brains accelerate more sharply on impact,  or fluctuating hormones during menstrual cycles that make them more susceptible. 
BILLIE JEAN KING, Tennis
King won a record 20 Wimbledon titles in her 18-year career (five singles, 15 doubles). Arguably her biggest win for women came in her 1973 "Battle of the Sexes" match against Bobby Riggs, who claimed the women's game was inferior. King fought for equal prize money for women and in 1971 became the first woman to win more than $100,000.
The Forgotten History of Female Athletes Who Organized Their Own Olympics
Swimming was one of the few sports women could compete in at the 1912 Olympic games, where the United Kingdom team (above) took home gold. Frustrated at their exclusion from many Olympic events, female athletes organized their own games from 1922 to 1934. (Photo credit: Creative Commons)
This story was originally published on July 26, 2016.
The Olympics is a not a neutral event. Although Olympic organizers like to present the Games as an apolitical celebration, the way the Olympics are structured reflect the ideals of the elites who are most involved with organizing the event. As we approach the kickoff of the Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro on August 5, it’s worth examining gender dynamics in the Games’ history—particularly looking at how female athletes were largely excluded from the Olympics for years as well as the often-overlooked activism of women who fought to compete internationally.
In the early 1900s, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) only allowed women to compete in a handful of events. Only 22 women took part in the games held in 1900. But in the early 1900s a worldwide women’s movement was demanding political inclusion, with some success. As women gained the right to vote in Europe, Russia, and the United States, behind the scenes, some IOC members were quietly moving to expand women’s participation. But IOC President Baron Pierre de Coubertin was implacable, angling for the continued marginalization of women’s sports. After the 1912 Stockholm Games, he and many of his IOC colleagues believed “an Olympiad with females would be impractical, uninteresting, unaesthetic and improper.”
Very proper: A French tennis player was one of few women who could compete at the 1900 Olympics (Photo credit: Creative Commons)
The 1928 Olympics in Amsterdam was the first time that doubled the number of female participants: almost 300 women took part in the Games, thanks largely to the inclusion of a small slate of women’s track and field events. However, citing medical “evidence,” the IOC ruled after the Amsterdam Games that the 800-meter run was too dangerous. In Amsterdam, after completing the race, a number of competitors fell to the turf to regain their strength. Anti-feminists pounced at the opportunity, arguing that women were too frail to run such distances, and quite remarkably their views won out. Women were not allowed to compete in the 800-meter run until the 1960 Olympics in Rome. Still, in 1928 women comprised about 10 percent of all Olympic athletes.
The U.S. women’s Olympic swim team in 1928 (Photo credit: Creative Commons)
The Olympics echoed the gender and class structures of the time, but marginalization sparked an innovative response. In the 1920s, dissident athletes teamed up in solidarity with sympathetic supporters to organize alternative athletic competitions rooted in principles of equality. To challenge IOC sexism, women and their allies organized alternative games, a vital yet largely forgotten act of political dissent. Everywhere women looked, the Olympic cards were stacked against them. The IOC, as led by Coubertin, opposed women’s full participation, as the minutes of the 1914 IOC general session made clear: “No women to participate in track and field, but as before—allowed to participate in fencing and swimming.” Discrimination was baked into the master plans.
Enter Alice Milliat, a French athlete and activist whose bold actions scythed a path for women’s participation in the Games. After the exclusion of women from track and field in Antwerp, Milliat founded the Fédération Sportive Féminine Internationale (FSFI) on October 31, 1921. At its first meeting, the group voted to establish a Women’s Olympics as an alternative to the male-centric Games. In total four Women’s Games were staged, in 1922 (Paris), 1926 (Gothenburg, Sweden), 1930 (Prague), and 1934 (London), with participants coming mostly from North America, Western Europe, and Japan.
Rower Alice Milliat, seen here in 1913, fought for women to compete at the Olympics (Photo credit: Creative Commons)
The first Women’s Olympics in 1922 were largely a success. More than 20,000 people attended the single day of competition at Paris’s Stade Pershing, where athletes from five countries (Britain, Czechoslovakia, France, Switzerland, and the United States) competed in 11 events, more than twice as many as the IOC would include when it finally allowed more women’s track and field events in 1928. Newspapers of the day reported favorably, if somewhat backhandedly, on the strides women were making in sports. According to the New York Times, 1922 “was notable for the development of women athletes in all branches of competitions fitting to their sex. Remarkable progress was made by them, and almost overnight, they assumed a place of great prominence in the world of athletics.” No longer were “girl athletes … a decided novelty,” but “capable of impressive performances.”
Four years later at Gothenburg, the now-renamed Women’s World Games were also a one-day affair, although with athletes from eight countries. In 1930, Prague played host to a three-day gathering featuring more than 200 top-flight female athletes from 17 countries. Media coverage was typical of its day, if belittling by present-day standards. In an article titled “Girls Go to Prague,” one newspaper reported, “Nine girls from Vancouver B.C., young, athletic and socially prominent, accompanied by a chaperone, are on their way to Czechoslovakia.”
Nevertheless, the event drew considerable public interest, with more than 15,000 spectators. The fourth Women’s World Games were held in London in 1934, with 19 participating countries. Organizers added basketball to the slate of track and field events. In a way, the FSFI was undercut by its own success. By 1936, the group had increased membership from five to 30 countries and had secured allies in the International Association of Athletic Federations (IAAF), but, Mary H. Leigh and Thérèse M. Bonin argue, “no matter how determined they were and no matter how good their arguments were, women could not get very far without the support and alliance of the male sport establishment.”
A commentator lamented what would happen to women’s relationship with men if “those delightful creatures begin to toss the discus.” But those kinds of ideas didn’t stop Polish athlete Jadwiga Wajsówna from competing in the 1936 games. (Photo credit: Creative Commons)
The IAAF had incrementally taken more and more control of women’s track and field and absorbed it into the Olympic schedule. In 1936, the FSFI folded, after serving great purpose. Meanwhile, traditionalists chafed at the inclusion of women. Sometimes, those who wished to limit the range of sports positioned themselves as progressive advocates of women’s athletics. For instance, Dr. Frederick Rand Rogers, the director of the Department of Health and Physical Education for the State of New York, adopted the approach of “more, rather than less, but of the right kind.” Cloaking paternalism and sexism in the respectable garb of science, Rogers argued for “less strenuous” sports for women, and opposed women’s participation in the 1932 Olympics.
Alice Milliat and her colleagues used a classic inside-outside recipe for political change. They worked inside the corridors of power with IAAF and IOC power brokers while creating a viable alternative outside the IOC’s orbit—the Women’s Olympics. Their relentless pressure on the men who controlled the Olympics paid off in an early breakthrough for women in sport. But an uphill battle still lay ahead. Many sports administrators were skeptical of women’s sports, including Avery Brundage, the top Olympic official in the United States. While embroiled in a 1932 controversy over whether the athlete extraordinaire Mildred “Babe” Didrikson was an amateur or a professional, he remarked: “You know, the ancient Greeks kept women out of their athletic games. They wouldn’t even let them on the sidelines. I’m not so sure but they were right.” Didrikson had been suspended by the Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) for alleged professionalism because she had appeared in an advertisement for milk. This was enough for Brundage to advocate suspension, although Didrikson was later reinstated.
Many Olympic officials, like Avery Brundage (above) who served as IOC president from 1952-1972, were not so excited about women competing in many Olympic events. (Photo credit: Creative Commons)
At the time Brundage was head of the Amateur Athletic Union, so his opinions carried weight. In 1949, as IOC vice president, he wrote: “I think it is quite well known that I am lukewarm on most of the [Olympic] events for women for a number of reasons which I will not bother to expound because I probably will be outvoted anyway. I think women’s events should be confined to those appropriate for women: swimming, tennis, figure skating and fencing but certainly not shot putting.” In 1957, Brundage still clung to these beliefs. In a circular letter to members of the IOC he wrote, “Many still believe that events for women should be eliminated from the Games, but this group is now a minority. There is still, however, a well grounded protest against events which are not truly feminine, like putting a shot, or those too strenuous for most of the opposite sex, such as distance runs.” These opinions were very much in tune with those emerging from the IOC. The General Session minutes from the April 1953 meeting in Mexico City read—under the heading of “Reducing the number of athletes and officials”—that “women not to be excluded from the Games, but only participation in ‘suitable’ sports.”
Some within the IOC claimed that limiting women’s sports was a way to cut costs in the face of an emerging concern with “gigantism.” They argued that the Olympics were becoming too big and unwieldy—and that slicing women’s sports could slim down the Games. Sometimes the mainstream press could be even more extreme. In 1953, Arthur Daley wrote in the New York Times that he would entertain the idea of eliminating women from the Olympics entirely. “There’s just nothing feminine or enchanting about a girl with beads of perspiration on her alabaster brow, the result of grotesque contortions in events totally unsuited to female architecture,” he wrote. “It’s probably boorish to say it,” he conceded, “but any self-respecting schoolboy can achieve superior performances to a woman champion.” Boorish indeed, but Daley wasn’t finished: “The Greeks knew exactly what they were doing when they invented the Olympics … Not only did they bar the damsels from competing but they wouldn’t even admit them as spectators.” He cautioned: “Don’t get me wrong, please. Women are wonderful. But when those delightful creatures begin to toss the discus or put the shot—well, it does something to a guy. And it ain’t love, Buster.”
This essay is excerpted from Power Games: A Political History of the Olympics by Jules Boykoff, published by Verso Books.
Early baseball Edit
Brooklyn has been a hotbed of baseball going back to the sport's infancy. A box score from October 21, 1845, lists a game between the New York Base Ball Club and "Brooklyn Players". The New York Base Ball Club was one of the first to play under rules codified by the New York Knickerbockers only one month earlier but no one knows the rules of that "first box score" game.
In the mid-1850s, dozens of ballclubs were formally constituted in greater New York City. When the fraternity convened for the first time to revise playing rules, 8 Brooklyn clubs were among the 16, traditionally considered the founding members of the National Association of Base Ball Players. In summer 1858, the Fashion Race Course in Corona, Queens hosted a series of three "all star" games between New York City and Brooklyn teams. That was a milestone in commercialization, the first baseball games with admission for sale. 
Brooklyn teams dominated play in the NABBP during the early and mid-1860s, with the Atlantic, Excelsior, Eckford, and Atlantic clubs contending for championships in that order. (All three were among the 16 founding clubs. The Atlantics both preceded Excelsior and outlived Eckford as claimant to the very top spot.)
During the War, which curtailed the game greatly, William Cammeyer opened Union Grounds in Williamsburg, the first enclosed field dedicated to baseball, which put the game on a commercial basis. (It was dedicated to baseball most of the year but flooded and used for ice sports in the winter.) The Eckfords played home games at Union Grounds and the New York Mutuals relocated there in 1868, from Hoboken, New Jersey, where several Manhattan clubs were based. A second enclosed baseball park opened, the Capitoline Grounds in Bedford-Stuyvesant, served as home to the Atlantics. 
League baseball Edit
The National Association of Professional Base Ball Players (NA), the first professional league was established in 1871. The three major clubs calling Brooklyn home all joined by its second season, so both grounds are in the record books if we count the NA as a major league. For 1873 the Eckfords went out of business and the Atlantics moved in as second team at the Union Grounds, sharing with the Mutuals for three seasons. The Mutuals continued as a charter member of the National League in 1876 and the Hartfords of Brooklyn played there in 1877.
Brooklyn's most famous team, the Dodgers, got its start as a minor league team in 1883, joining the American Association in 1884, calling themselves the Bridegrooms and playing at the first of three venues called Washington Park. The team moved to the National League in 1890 and relocated to Ebbets Field in 1913. In the years prior to 1932, they were also known as the Superbas and the Robins, the last an informal name taken from their manager, Wilbert Robinson. The team name is short for "trolley dodgers", a reference to the many streetcar lines that once criss-crossed the borough.
Perennial losers, the Dodgers were called "bums" by their fans, first with derision, eventually with affection. The Dodgers greatest achievement came in 1947 when Jackie Robinson took the field in a Dodgers uniform, the first Major League African American player of the modern era. The Brooklyn Dodgers won National League pennants in 1890, 1899, 1900, 1916, 1920, 1941, 1947, 1949, 1952, and 1953, but lost the 1941, 1947, 1949, 1952 & 1953 World Series to their longtime rival the New York Yankees. In 1955, the Dodgers won their first and only World Series in Brooklyn, beating the rival New York Yankees, resulting in mass euphoria and celebrations all over Brooklyn. Just two years later, the Dodgers moved to Los Angeles, after the 1957 season, causing widespread resentment and sorrow. Brooklyn's most beloved and cherished institution had left, and the move is cited by some historians as one of the catalysts for the decline of Brooklyn in the 1960s and 1970s.
In addition, the Brooklyn Ward's Wonders of the Players' League in 1890 and the Brooklyn Tip-Tops of the Federal League in 1914 and 1915 called the borough home. The Players' League team played in Eastern Park, in what is now known as East New York. The Tip-Tops played in the final incarnation of Washington Park.
After a 43-year hiatus, baseball returned to the borough in the form of the Brooklyn Cyclones, a minor league team that began playing in Coney Island in 2001. The Cyclones are a short season Class A New York–Penn League affiliate of the New York Mets professional team. The Cyclones play at MCU Park, located in southern Brooklyn near the Coney Island Boardwalk. During hot summer nights, fireworks are sometimes used to signify the commencement of the baseball games.
On January 23, 2004, developer Bruce Ratner announced that he had purchased the National Basketball Association's Nets franchise (then known as the New Jersey Nets) and started on his plan to move the Nets to the 18,000-seat Barclays Center as part of the Atlantic Yards development at Flatbush and Atlantic Avenues. After years of delays caused by community opposition and financial difficulties, the arena broke ground in March 2010 and opened in September 2012. The Nets officially changed their names to the Brooklyn Nets on April 30, 2012, and the move was made official. The Nets thus became Brooklyn's first major league sports team in 55 years.
The Brooklyn Kings, a United States Basketball League team, played in Downtown Brooklyn until 2007. The borough also had a franchise in the American Basketball Association in 2006 called the Brooklyn Wonders.
A new American Basketball Association team called the Brooklyn Skyrockets started in 2014 and plays at the Aviator Sports and Events Center at Floyd Bennett Field.
Several professional football teams have called Brooklyn home, including two in 1926. The Brooklyn Horsemen of the original American Football League and the Brooklyn Lions of the National Football League competed for a time before merging in November and folding at season's end.
In 1930, the Brooklyn Dodgers began play at Ebbets Field. The team lasted until 1944, calling themselves the Brooklyn Tigers that last season but going winless. In 1945, the team was merged with the Boston Yanks and played one more home game in Brooklyn that season as the Yanks.
The second AFL also had a Brooklyn Tigers club in 1936, but the team never played in Brooklyn and folded after only seven games.
In 1946, the new All-America Football Conference had yet another Brooklyn Dodgers team. This club lasted until 1948, after which it merged with the New York Yankees football team. The renamed Brooklyn-New York Yankees folded after one season when the AAFC merged with the NFL.
There was an independent minor league team called the Brooklyn Dodgers in the short-lived Continental Football League in 1966. Like the AFL Brooklyn Tigers team, they never played in Brooklyn, but were called so because baseball Dodger legend Jackie Robinson was the general manager of the team. They played their home games at Downing Stadium in Randall's Island, and then folded after one season when the team failed to draw.
Finally, the Brooklyn Bolts of the Fall Experimental Footaball League played at MCU Park from 2014-2015.
Brooklyn had two teams represented in the American Amateur Hockey League which operated from 1896–1917 the Brooklyn Skating Club (1896–1906) and the Brooklyn Crescents (1896–97, 1899–1917). The Brooklyn Skating Club won one championship title in 1898–99 whereas the Brooklyn Crescents captured nine championship titles between 1900–1912. Both teams had a considerable influx of Canadian players.
The Brooklyn Americans, formerly known as the New York Americans, were a National Hockey League club in the 1941–42 season. Despite the name, the team played its home games at Madison Square Garden and never played a game in Brooklyn. Brooklyn has two ice rink facilities, Aviator Sports and Recreation (a twin NHL regulation ice sheet facility) in Floyd Bennett Field in Southeast Brooklyn, and Abe Stark Rink in Coney Island.
The New York Aviators were a single-A minor league professional hockey team in the newly formed Federal Hockey League (FHL) which consists of six teams throughout New York State, Connecticut, and near Cornwall, Ontario. The organization changed their name to the Brooklyn Aviators before the 2011–2012 season, but folded after the season. The Aviators' home arena was the Aviator Sports and Events Center located at Floyd Bennett Field in Brooklyn, New York.
The NHL's New York Islanders moved to the Barclays Center in 2015 after playing at Nassau Veterans Memorial Coliseum since their inception in 1972.
Also in 2015, the New York Riveters, of the National Women's Hockey League, played their inaugural season at Aviator Sports and Events Center. The following year it was announced that the Riveters would relocate to Barnabas Health Hockey House at the Prudential Center in Newark, New Jersey, thus ending their tenure in Brooklyn.
A minor league soccer team called Brooklyn Knights plays at the Metropolitan Oval, which is one of the oldest soccer venues in the US but is actually located in Maspeth, Queens. The team competes in the USL PDL.
The New York Cosmos of the NASL began playing at MCU Park in 2017. 
In Rugby league, the Brooklyn Kings represent Brooklyn in the professional North American Rugby League competition.
In Rugby union, Rugby United New York joined Major League Rugby in 2019. They play their home games at MCU Park in Coney Island. Brooklyn Rugby Football Club is a men's team competing in Division III of the Metropolitan Rugby Football Union and Brooklyn Women's Rugby Football Club is a women's team in Division II of the same union.
The Public School Athletic League now supports rugby too, and flag (non-contact) rugby is played in numerous public elementary, middle and high schools across the borough.
Fans of professional wrestling have long admired Steve Lombardi, best known as The Brooklyn Brawler, as one of the sport's premier jobbers. ECW legend Tazz is also proud of his Brooklyn roots, hailing from the Red Hook area of the city.
Alex Morgan is the co-captain for the United States Women's Soccer Team and won her second consecutive FIFA World Cup championship in 2019. She debuted in the World Cup in 2011, where the team won silver.
In 2012, Morgan recorded 28 goals and 21 assists to become the second American woman to score 20 goals and 20 assists in the same calendar year alongside Mia Hamm. She was also the sixth and youngest US player to score 20 goals in a single year.
Since being named to the senior US team in 2019, Morgan has accumulated 169 caps and 107 goals. She was also one of the first women's soccer players to appear on the cover of a FIFA video game.
Off the field, Morgan is part of the US soccer women fighting for equal pay.
About Laurent Dubois
I am Professor of Romance Studies and History and the Director of the Forum for Scholars & Publics at Duke University. I founded the Soccer Politics blog in 2009 as part of a course on "World Cup and World Politics" taught at Duke University. I'm currently teaching the course under the title "Soccer Politics" here at Duke. My books include Soccer Empire: The World Cup and the Future of France (University of California Press, 2010) and The Language of the Game: How to Understand Soccer (Basic Books, 2018)
The AAGSL would go through a series of name changes over the first few years as it got comfortable and gained a following. The word “Baseball” replaced “Softball” to help distinguish it from the many amateur softball leagues, then it was changed to “Ball” and eventually back to “Baseball.” Around 1950, the league abandoned the underhand softball way of pitching and started throwing overhand like the men.
Since the bulk of the players the league was drawing were from softball teams, it made sense to use a softball in the games. The executives wanted to keep the game lively, so they moved the pitching rubber back and used nine players on the field instead of 10. They also instituted men’s base running rules, allowing leadoffs and steals.
The History of Athletic Trainers
Have you ever thought about what people use to do before Athletic Trainers were a thing? Honestly, the thought runs through my mind almost every time I provide care to an injury. But, first what are Athletic Trainers? Athletic Trainers are healthcare professionals who may work independently or in collaboration with physicians in accordance with their education and training and the states’ statutes, rules and regulations. As a part of the healthcare team, services provided by ATs include injury and illness prevention, wellness promotion and education, emergent care, examination and clinical assessment and care of rehabilitation of injuries and medical conditions. (1)
Now that we understand a bit more about what an Athletic Trainer does, let’s step into the time machine and explore the profession of Athletic Training.
Athletic Training has roots dating back to ancient Greece where athletics was an important part of Greek culture. Individuals called Paidotribes (boy-rubber) and Aleittes (anointer) suggest that massage played an important role in athletic performance. The Medical Gymnastae (trainers) were said to possess ideas of the effect of diet, rest, and exercise on the development of the body. Hippocrates, the “father of modern medicine,” and his student Claudius Galen often advised their patients to exercise in the gymnasia as a means of recovering from their ills. (2)
As sport began to reemerge in society during the late 19 th century, few individuals recognized the need for medical care for injured athletes. Athletes, their coaches, teammates, and spectators often managed their own injuries and the injuries of team members. In 1869, Rutgers and Princeton introduced the sport of football to the American scene. (2) Athletic Training in the United States began in October 1881 when Harvard University hired James Robinson to work conditioning for their football team. At the time, the term “Athletic Trainer” meant one who worked with track and field athletes. Robinson had worked with track and field athletes, but the name “Athletic Trainer” transferred to those working on conditioning these football players and later other athletes. (3) As a result of 18 deaths and 159 serious injuries in 1905, President Roosevelt was threatening to abolish football as an intercollegiate sport. This spurred a few educational institutions to hire individuals whose duties included those of an Athletic Trainer. (2)
The National Athletic Trainers’ Association (NATA) was founded in 1950 when the first meeting took place in Kansas City. About 200 Athletic Trainers gathered to discuss the future of their profession. Recognizing the need for a set of professional standards and appropriate professional recognition, the NATA has helped to unify Certified Athletic Trainers across the country by setting a standard for professionalism, education, certification, research and practice settings. Since its inception, the NATA has been a driving force behind the recognition of the Athletic Training profession. (4) The NATA produced the NATABOC in 1969 in order to implement a certification process for the profession for an entry-level Athletic Trainer. In 1989, became an independent non-profit corporation and soon later changed its name to the Board of Certification (BOC). (3)
The qualifications for a professional Athletic Trainer include graduation with a minimum of a bachelor’s degree from an accredited Athletic Training Program CPR and first aid certification an endorsed application by a NATA-certified trainer and successful completion of the BOC exam. (5)
Nowadays you can find Athletic trainers in a variety of settings. Here are just a few:
- Public and private secondary schools, colleges and universities, professional and Olympic sports
- Youth leagues, municipal and independently owned youth sports facilities
- Physician practice, similar to nurses, physician assistants, physical therapists and other professional clinical personnel
- Rural and urban hospitals, hospital emergency rooms, urgent and ambulatory care centers
- Clinics with specialties in sports medicine, cardiac rehab, medical fitness, wellness and physical therapy
- Occupational health departments in commercial settings, which include manufacturing, distribution and offices to assist with ergonomics, injury prevention, and OSHA-approved care for work and non-work-related injuries
- Police and fire departments and academies, municipal departments, branches of the military
- Performing arts including professional and collegiate level dance and music (6)
- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Athletic_training#History_of_Athletic _Training
Industrial Sports Medicine Professional
Rod is an Industrial Sports Medicine Professional with InSite Health. He is a Board-Certified Athletic trainer with a bachelor’s degree in Athletic Training from Hofstra University and a master’s degree in Exercise Science from CUNY Queens College. He is also a Corrective Exercise Specialist. He joined the Industrial Sports Medicine field in December 2017 after spending seven years as a Certified Athletic Trainer at CUNY Queens College.